Thesaurus Construction Guidelines


Acronyms are spelled out in full to  establish a single semantic and prevent disambiguation.

Terms included  are taken from the Sear’s List of Subject Headings.

Synonyms and antonyms are included to aid people in identifying terms and for easy retrieval.

Meanings are included to clarify the term use and to guide the users.

Compound nouns are stated in plural form.

In general, indexing terms are controlled vocabulary.

Purpose of these guidelines

The guidelines provide information on the key concepts underlying the use of, and component parts of, a keyword thesaurus.

These guidelines form part of the framework of rules in formulating the concepts in making this thesaurus and to guide the users in selecting the term.

Features of a thesaurus

A thesaurus is a list of controlled terms that is structured though relationships between terms..

As a tool to title records, a thesaurus has a number of features that make it more user-friendly than its close relative.  A thesaurus may have:

  • multiple entry points to guide users to preferred terms and correct titles
  • scope notes
  • strict control of language, and
  • alphabetical or hierarchical presentation.

When compiling a thesaurus, it is important to use the features that suit the particular implementation needs by the users.

Hierarchical relationships

A hierarchy is formed when a preferred term represents a concept which can be linked to another term with a broader or narrower meaning.

Broader term or BT indicates that there is a term with a wider meaning than the term given. Conversely, narrower term or NT indicates that there is a more specific concept than the one listed.

Equivalence relationships

The use of preferred and non-preferred terms is a characteristic of a controlled language thesaurus. Preferred terms are permitted terms that can be used to represent a given concept. Non-preferred terms, also known as ‘forbidden’ terms, are not used to classify documents and records. They are included in the thesaurus to act as pointers to preferred terms.

This relationship between preferred and non-preferred terms is the equivalence relationship. When two or more terms can be used to refer to a given concept, one is selected as the preferred term to be used in the classification scheme. Non-preferred terms are included in the thesaurus, as access points for users.

Scope notes

Scope notes are used to clarify the exact meaning of a term and also when to use it in the context of a thesaurus.



            A thesaurus is a structured collection of concepts and terms for the purpose of improving the retrieval of information. It  should help the searcher to find good search terms, whether they be descriptors from a controlled vocabulary or the manifold terms needed for a comprehensive free-text search.

This listing provides  a substantial body of terms for subject indexing on the course on Business.




Scope Note:


 An economic system in which goods and services are exchanged for one another or money, on the basis of their perceived worth. Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis. A business is a legal entity that is set-up or designed to make goods, sell goods, or provide a service. Many businesses are for-profit organizations as opposed to a non-profit organization or hobby job. How an organization is structured affects how a business is run, how it is taxed, and how profits are distributed. The actual business structure can also affect the personal liability of any owners of the business.



Main entry:



busi·ness  (bzns)



a. The occupation, work, or trade in which a person is engaged: the wholesale food business.

b. A specific occupation or pursuit: the best designer in the business.

2. Commercial, industrial, or professional dealings: new systems now being used in business.

3. A commercial enterprise or establishment: bought his uncle’s business.

4. Volume or amount of commercial trade: Business had fallen off.

5. Commercial dealings; patronage: took her business to a trustworthy salesperson.


a. One’s rightful or proper concern or interest: “The business of America is business” (Calvin Coolidge).

b. Something involving one personally: It’s none of my business.

7. Serious work or endeavor: got right down to business.

8. An affair or matter: “We will proceed no further in this business” (Shakespeare).

9. An incidental action performed by an actor on the stage to fill a pause between lines or to provide interesting detail.

10. Informal Verbal abuse; scolding: gave me the business for being late.

11. Obsolete The condition of being busy.


Parts of Speech Noun


An economic system in which goods and services are exchanged for one another or money, on the basis of their perceived worth. Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis.


Negotiation, barter, subsistence economy, underground economy,  purchasing, Selling, capital, labor, free enterprise, capitalism, fairs, retail trade, contracts, commercial law, bonds, stocks,


Antonyms Unemployment
Non-Preferred Terms



trade  (trd)


1. The business of buying and selling commodities; commerce. See Synonyms at business.

2. The people working in or associated with a business or industry: a textile-exporting publication for the trade.

3. The customers of a specified business or industry; clientele.

4. The act or an instance of buying or selling; transaction.

5. An exchange of one thing for another.

6. An occupation, especially one requiring skilled labor; craft: the building trades, including carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electrical installation.

7. The trade winds. Often used in the plural with the.

v. trad·ed, trad·ing, trades


1. To engage in buying and selling for profit.

2. To make an exchange of one thing for another.

3. To be offered for sale: Stocks traded at lower prices this morning.

4. To shop or buy regularly: trades at the local supermarket.

1. To give in exchange for something else: trade farm products for manufactured goods; will trade my ticket for yours.

2. To buy and sell (stock, for example).

3. To pass back and forth: We traded jokes.


1. Of or relating to trade or commerce.

2. Relating to, used by, or serving a particular trade: a trade magazine.

3. Of or relating to books that are primarily published to be sold commercially, as in bookstores.

Phrasal Verbs:

trade down

To trade something in for something else of lower value or price: bought a new, smaller car, trading the old one down for economy.

trade in

To surrender or sell (an old or used item), using the proceeds as partial payment on a new purchase.

trade on

To put to calculated and often unscrupulous advantage; exploit: children of celebrities who trade on their family names.

trade up

To trade something in for something else of greater value or price: The value of our house soared, enabling us to trade up to a larger place.


Broader Terms : Commerce

Noun1.commerce – transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

commercialism, mercantilism

trading – buying or selling securities or commodities

trade – the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services; “Venice was an important center of trade with the East”; “they are accused of conspiring to constrain trade”

e-commerce – commerce conducted electronically (as on the internet)

interchange, exchange – reciprocal transfer of equivalent sums of money (especially the currencies of different countries); “he earns his living from the interchange of currency”

initial offering, initial public offering, IPO – a corporation’s first offer to sell stock to the public

business enterprise, commercial enterprise, business – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

shipping, transport, transportation – the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

carriage trade – trade from upper-class customers

transaction, dealing, dealings – the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities); “no transactions are possible without him”; “he has always been honest is his dealings with me”

importation, importing – the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country

exporting, exportation – the commercial activity of selling and shipping goods to a foreign country

marketing – the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service; “most companies have a manager in charge of marketing”

distribution – the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer

marketing, merchandising, selling – the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money

traffic – buying and selling; especially illicit trade

defrayal, defrayment, payment – the act of paying money

evasion, nonpayment – the deliberate act of failing to pay money; “his evasion of all his creditors”; “he was indicted for nonpayment”

usance – the period of time permitted by commercial usage for the payment of a bill of exchange (especially a foreign bill of exchange)

commercialise, commercialize, market – make commercial; “Some Amish people have commercialized their way of life”

buy, purchase – obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction; “The family purchased a new car”; “The conglomerate acquired a new company”; “She buys for the big department store”

take – buy, select; “I’ll take a pound of that sausage”

get – purchase; “What did you get at the toy store?”

clear – sell; “We cleared a lot of the old model cars”

turn – get by buying and selling; “the company turned a good profit after a year”

negociate – sell or discount; “negociate securities”

sell – exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent; “He sold his house in January”; “She sells her body to survive and support her drug habit”

sell short – sell securities or commodities or foreign currency that is not actually owned by the seller, who hopes to cover (buy back) the sold items at a lower price and thus to earn a profit

remainder – sell cheaply as remainders; “The publisher remaindered the books”

resell – sell (something) again after having bought it

deaccession – sell (art works) from a collection, especially in order to raise money for the purchase of other art works; “The museum deaccessioned several important works of this painter”

fob off, foist off, palm off – sell as genuine, sell with the intention to deceive

realise, realize – convert into cash; of goods and property

auction, auction off, auctioneer – sell at an auction

sell, trade, deal – do business; offer for sale as for one’s livelihood; “She deals in gold”; “The brothers sell shoes”

transact – conduct business; “transact with foreign governments”

deal – sell; “deal hashish”

retail – sell on the retail market

wholesale – sell in large quantities

liquidize, sell out, sell up – get rid of all one’s merchandise

2.Commerce – the United States federal department that promotes and administers domestic and foreign trade (including management of the census and the patent office); created in 1913

Commerce Department, Department of Commerce, DoC

executive department – a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States

Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau – the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA – an agency in the Department of Commerce that maps the oceans and conserves their living resources; predicts changes to the earth’s environment; provides weather reports and forecasts floods and hurricanes and other natural disasters related to weather

Technology Administration – an agency in the Department of Commerce that works with United States industries to promote competitiveness and maximize the impact of technology on economic growth

Patent and Trademark Office Database, Patent Office – the government bureau in the Department of Commerce that keeps a record of patents and trademarks and grants new ones

3.commerce – social exchange, especially of opinions, attitudes, etc.

conversation – the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc.



Noun 1. economics – the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economic science, political economy

production – (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; “he introduced more efficient methods of production”

Gresham’s Law – (economics) the principle that when two kinds of money having the same denominational value are in circulation the intrinsically more valuable money will be hoarded and the money of lower intrinsic value will circulate more freely until the intrinsically more valuable money is driven out of circulation; bad money drives out good; credited to Sir Thomas Gresham

economic theory – (economics) a theory of commercial activities (such as the production and consumption of goods)

social science – the branch of science that studies society and the relationships of individual within a society

game theory, theory of games – (economics) a theory of competition stated in terms of gains and losses among opposing players

econometrics – the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data

finance – the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets

macroeconomics – the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy

microeconomics – the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms

supply-side economics – the school of economic theory that stresses the costs of production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce

spillover – (economics) any indirect effect of public expenditure

capital account – (economics) that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s outflow and inflow of financial securities

economic consumption, use of goods and services, usance, consumption, use – (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; “the consumption of energy has increased steadily”

utility – (economics) a measure that is to be maximized in any situation involving choice

marginal utility – (economics) the amount that utility increases with an increase of one unit of an economic good or service

productivity – (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

monopoly – (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; “a monopoly on silver”; “when you have a monopoly you can ask any price you like”

monopsony – (economics) a market in which goods or services are offered by several sellers but there is only one buyer

oligopoly – (economics) a market in which control over the supply of a commodity is in the hands of a small number of producers and each one can influence prices and affect competitors

moral hazard – (economics) the lack of any incentive to guard against a risk when you are protected against it (as by insurance); “insurance companies are exposed to a moral hazard if the insured party is not honest”

real – of, relating to, or representing an amount that is corrected for inflation; “real prices”; “real income”; “real wages”

nominal – of, relating to, or characteristic of an amount that is not adjusted for inflation; “the nominal GDP”; “nominal interest rates”

inflationary – associated with or tending to cause increases in inflation; “inflationary prices”

deflationary – associated with or tending to cause decreases in consumer prices or increases in the purchasing power of money; “deflationary measures”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


noun finance, commerce, the dismal science He gained a first class degree in economics. see economic organizations and treaties

“We have always known that heedless self-interest was bad morals; we know now that it is bad economics” [Franklin Delano Roosevelt First Inaugural Address]
“The Dismal Science” [Thomas Carlyle Latter-Day Pamphlets]


Branches of economics
agronomics, cliometrics, econometrics, economic history, industrial economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, welfare economics

Economics terms
arbitration, asset, autarky, automation, balanced budget, balance of payments, balance of trade, balance sheet, bank, bankruptcy, barriers to entry, barriers to exit, barter, base rate, bear market, bid, black economy, boom, boycott, bridging loan, budget, budget deficit, building society, bull market, business cycle, buyer’s market, capacity, capital, capital good, capitalism, cartel, cash, central bank, Chamber of Commerce, closed shop, collective bargaining, command economy or planned economy, commercial bank or clearing bank, commission, commodity, common market, comparative advantage, competition, conspicuous consumption, consumer, consumer good, consumption, cooperative, corporation, corporation tax, cost-benefit analysis, cost effectiveness, cost of living, cost-push inflation, credit, credit controls, credit squeeze, currency, current account, customs union, debt, deflation, deindustrialization, demand, demand management or stabilization policy, demand-pull inflation, deposit account, depreciation, depression, deregulation, devaluation, diminishing returns, discount, discount house (Brit.), discount rate, disequilibrium, disinflation, disposable income, diversification, divestment, dividend, division of labour, dumping, duopoly, durable good, Dutch disease, duty, earned income, earnings, economic growth, economic policy, economic sanctions, economies of scale, embargo, employee, employer, employment, entrepreneur, environmental audit, exchange, exchange rate, expenditure, export, finance, financial year, fiscal drag, fiscal policy, fiscal year, Five-Year Plan, fixed assets, fixed costs, fixed exchange-rate system, fixed investment, floating exchange-rate system, foreclosure, foreign exchange controls, foreign exchange market, forfaiting, franchise, free-market economy, free rider, free trade, free trade area, free trade zone or freeport, freight, friendly society, fringe benefits, full employment, funding, futures market or forward exchange market, gains from trade, game theory, gilt-edged security or government bond, gold standard, greenfield investment, gross domestic product or GDP, gross national product or GNP, gross profit, hard currency, hedging, hire, hire purchase or HP, hoarding, holding, horizontal integration, hot money, human capital, hyperinflation, imperfect competition, import, import restrictions, income, income support, income tax, index-linked, indirect tax, industrial dispute, industrial estate, industrial policy, industrial relations, industrial sector, inflationary spiral, information agreement, infrastructure, inheritance tax, insolvency, instalment credit, institutional investors, insurance, intangible assets, intangibles, intellectual property right, interest, interest rate, international competitiveness, international debt, international reserves, investment, invisible balance, invisible hand, invoice, joint-stock company, joint venture, junk bond, labour, labour market, labour theory of value, laissez faire or laisser faire, lease, legal tender, lender, liability, liquidation, liquid asset, liquidity, listed company, loan, lockout, macroeconomic policy, management buy-out, marginal revenue, marginal utility, market, market failure, mass production, means test, mediation, medium of exchange, medium-term financial strategy, mercantilism, merchant bank, merger, microeconomic policy, middleman, mint, mixed economy, monetarism, monetary compensatory amounts, MCAs, or green money, monetary policy, money, money supply, monopoly, moonlighting, mortgage, multinational, national debt, national income, national insurance contributions, nationalization, national product, natural rate of unemployment, net profit, nondurable good, offshore, oligopoly, overheads, overheating, overmanning, overtime, patent, pawnbroker, pay, pay-as-you-earn or PAYE, payroll, pension, pension fund, per capita income, perfect competition, personal equity plan or PEP, picket, piecework, polluter pays principle, portfolio, poverty trap, premium, premium bond, price, prices and incomes policy, primary sector, private enterprise, private property, privatization, producer, production, productivity, profit, profitability, profit-and-loss account, profit margin, profit sharing, progressive taxation, protectionism, public expenditure, public finance, public interest, public-sector borrowing requirement or PSBR, public-sector debt repayment, public utility, public works, pump priming, purchasing power, quality control, ratchet effect, rational expectations, rationalization, rationing, recession, recommended retail price, recovery, recycling, redundancy, reflation, regional policy, rent, rent controls, research and development or R & D, residual unemployment, restrictive labour practice, retail, retail price index, revaluation, revenue, risk analysis, salary, sales, saving, savings bank, seasonal unemployment, self-employment, self service, self-sufficiency, seller’s market, sequestration, service sector, share, shareholder, share issue, share price index, shop, shop steward, simple interest, slump, social costs, socio-economic group, soft currency, specialization, speculation, stagflation, standard of living, stock, stockbroker, stock control, stock exchange or stock market, stop-go cycle, structural unemployment, subsidiary company, subsidy, supplier, supply, supply-side economics, surplus, synergy, takeover, tangible assets, tariff, tax, taxation, tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax haven, terms of trade, trade, trade barrier, trademark, trade union, trade-weighted index, training, transaction, trust, trustee, underwriter, unearned income, unemployment, unemployment benefit, uniform business rate or UBR, unit of account, unit trust, utility, value-added tax or VAT, variable costs, venture capital, vertical integration, voluntary unemployment, wage, wage restraint, wealth, welfare state, wholesaler, worker participation, working capital, yield

Economics schools and theories
Austrian school, Chicago school, Classical school, Keynesianism, Marxism, mercantilism, monetarism, neoclassical school, neoKeynesians, Physiocrats, Reaganomics, Rogernomics (N.Z.), Thatcherism

Norman Angell (English), Walter Bagehot (British), Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (Italian), William Henry Beveridge (English), John Bright (English), Richard Cobden (English), Augustin Cournot (French), Jacques Delors (French), C(lifford) H(ugh) Douglas (English), Milton Friedman (U.S.), Ragnar Frisch (Norwegian), J(ohn) K(enneth) Galbraith (U.S.), Henry George (U.S.), Friedrich August von Hayek (Austrian-British), David Hume (Scottish), William Stanley Jevons (English), John Maynard Keynes (British), Simon Kuznets (U.S.), Arthur Laffer (U.S.), Stephen Butler Leacock (Canadian), Sicco Leendert Mansholt (Dutch), Arthur Lewis West (Indian), Thomas Robert Malthus (British), Alfred Marshall (British), Karl Marx (German), James Mill (Scottish), John Stuart Mill (English), Jean Monnet (French), Nicole d’ Oresme (French), Andreas (George) Papandreou (Greek), Vilfredo Pareto (Italian), Frédéric Passy (French), A. W. H. Phillips (English), François Quesnay (French), David Ricardo (British), Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (British), Joseph Schumpeter (Austrian), Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi (Swiss), Adam Smith (British), Jan Tinbergen (Dutch), Arnold Toynbee (English), Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (French), Thorstein Veblen (U.S.), Dame Barbara (Mary) Ward (British), Sidney Webb (British), Max Weber (German), Barbara (Frances) Wootton (English)

Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002



Narrower Terms



Banks and banking


Business budgets

Business enterprises

Business failures



Customer relations

Department stores

Economic conditions


Home-based business

Installment plan

Mail-order business




Office management








1.accounting – a convincing explanation that reveals basic causes; “he was unable to give a clear accounting for his actions”

explanation, account – a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.; “the explanation was very simple”; “I expected a brief account”

2.accounting – a system that provides quantitative information about finances

internal control – an accounting procedure or system designed to promote efficiency or assure the implementation of a policy or safeguard assets or avoid fraud and error etc.

system of rules, system – a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; “they have to operate under a system they oppose”; “that language has a complex system for indicating gender”

unearned income, unearned revenue – (accounting) income received but not yet earned (usually considered a current liability on a company’s balance sheet)

straight-line method, straight-line method of depreciation (accounting) a method of calculating depreciation by taking an equal amount of the asset’s cost as an expense for each year of the asset’s useful life

write-down, write-off – (accounting) reduction in the book value of an asset

goodwill, good will (accounting) an intangible asset valued according to the advantage or reputation a business has acquired (over and above its tangible assets)

balance of international payments, balance of payments – a system of recording all of a country’s economic transactions with the rest of the world over a period of one year; “a favorable balance of payments exists when more payments are coming in than going out”

current account – that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s exports and imports of goods and services and transfer payments

limited review, review – (accounting) a service (less exhaustive than an audit) that provides some assurance to interested parties as to the reliability of financial data

inventory – (accounting) the value of a firm’s current assets including raw materials and work in progress and finished goods

debit – enter as debit

3.accounting – the occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business


job, line of work, occupation, business, line – the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money; “he’s not in my line of business”

cost accounting – keeping account of the costs of items in production

bookkeeping, clerking – the activity of recording business transactions

inventory accounting – accounting that controls and evaluates inventory

carry forward, carry over – transfer from one time period to the next

4.accounting – a bookkeeper’s chronological list of related debits and credits of a business; forms part of a ledger of accounts

accounting system, method of accounting

account book, book of account, ledger, leger, book – a record in which commercial accounts are recorded; “they got a subpoena to examine our books”

control account – an account that shows totals of amounts entered in a subsidiary ledger

accounting entry, ledger entry, entry – a written record of a commercial transaction

credit side – account of payments received; usually the right side of a financial statement

debit side – account of payments owed; usually the left side of a financial statement

accrual basis – a method of accounting in which each item is entered as it is earned or incurred regardless of when actual payments are received or made

cash basis – a method of accounting in which each item is entered as payments are received or made

pooling of interest – an accounting method used in the merging of companies; the balance sheets are added together item by item; this method is tax-free

audit, audited account – an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

limited review, review – (accounting) a service (less exhaustive than an audit) that provides some assurance to interested parties as to the reliability of financial data

register – a book in which names and transactions are listed

5.accounting – a statement of recent transactions and the resulting balance; “they send me an accounting every month”

account statement, account

financial statement, statement – a document showing credits and debits

capital account – (finance) an account of the net value of a business at a specified date

capital account – (economics) that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s outflow and inflow of financial securities

profit and loss, profit and loss account – an account compiled at the end of an accounting period to show gross and net profit or loss

suspense account – an account used temporarily to carry doubtful receipts and disbursements or discrepancies pending their analysis and permanent classification

balance – equality between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account

expense account, travel and entertainment account – an account to which salespersons or executives can charge travel and entertainment expenses








  1. advertising – a public promotion of some product or service

ad, advert, advertisement, advertizement, advertizing

direct mail – advertising sent directly to prospective customers via the mail

preview, prevue, trailer – an advertisement consisting of short scenes from a motion picture that will appear in the near future

promotion, promotional material, publicity, packaging – a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution; “the packaging of new ideas”

advertorial – an advertisement that is written and presented in the style of an editorial or journalistic report

mailer – an advertisement that is sent by mail

newspaper ad, newspaper advertisement – a printed advertisement that is published in a newspaper

commercial, commercial message – a commercially sponsored ad on radio or television

broadsheet, broadside, circular, flyer, handbill, throwaway, flier, bill – an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet) intended for wide distribution; “he mailed the circular to all subscribers”

teaser – an advertisement that offers something free in order to arouse customers’ interest

top billing – the advertisement of a star’s name at the top of a theatrical poster

  2. advertising – the business of drawing public attention to goods and services


business enterprise, commercial enterprise, business – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

hard sell – forceful and insistent advertising

soft sell – suggestive or persuasive advertising

circularisation, circularization – circulating printed notices as a means of advertising

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Banks and banking

Noun 1. bank – sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water); “they pulled the canoe up on the bank”; “he sat on the bank of the river and watched the currents”

riverbank, riverside – the bank of a river

incline, slope, side – an elevated geological formation; “he climbed the steep slope”; “the house was built on the side of a mountain”

waterside – land bordering a body of water

  2. bank – a financial institution that accepts deposits and channels the money into lending activities; “he cashed a check at the bank”; “that bank holds the mortgage on my home”

banking company, banking concern, depository financial institution

financial institution, financial organisation, financial organization – an institution (public or private) that collects funds (from the public or other institutions) and invests them in financial assets

banking industry, banking system – banks collectively

credit union – a cooperative depository financial institution whose members can obtain loans from their combined savings

Federal Reserve Bank, reserve bank – one of 12 regional banks that monitor and act as depositories for banks in their region

agent bank – a bank that acts as an agent for a foreign bank

commercial bank, full service bank – a financial institution that accepts demand deposits and makes loans and provides other services for the public

state bank – a bank chartered by a state rather than by the federal government

agent bank, lead bank – a bank named by a lending syndicate of several banks to protect their interests

member bank – a bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System

merchant bank, acquirer – a credit card processing bank; merchants receive credit for credit card receipts less a processing fee

acquirer – a corporation gaining financial control over another corporation or financial institution through a payment in cash or an exchange of stock

thrift institution – a depository financial institution intended to encourage personal savings and home buying

Home Loan Bank – one of 11 regional banks that monitor and make short-term credit advances to thrift institutions in their region

  3. bank – a long ridge or pile; “a huge bank of earth”

bluff – a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)

ridge – a long narrow natural elevation or striation

sandbank – a submerged bank of sand near a shore or in a river; can be exposed at low tide

  4. bank – an arrangement of similar objects in a row or in tiers; “he operated a bank of switches”

array – an orderly arrangement; “an array of troops in battle order”

  5. bank – a supply or stock held in reserve for future use (especially in emergencies)

stockpile, reserve, backlog – something kept back or saved for future use or a special purpose

blood bank – a place for storing whole blood or blood plasma; “the Red Cross created a blood bank for emergencies”

eye bank – a place for storing and preserving corneas that are obtained from human corpses immediately after death; used for corneal transplantation to patients with corneal defects

food bank – a place where food is contributed and made available to those in need; “they set up a food bank for the flood victims”

soil bank – land retired from crop cultivation and planted with soil-building crops; government subsidies are paid to farmers for their retired land

  6. bank – the funds held by a gambling house or the dealer in some gambling games; “he tried to break the bank at Monte Carlo”

cash in hand, finances, funds, monetary resource, pecuniary resource – assets in the form of money

  7. bank – a slope in the turn of a road or track; the outside is higher than the inside in order to reduce the effects of centrifugal force

camber, cant

incline, slope, side – an elevated geological formation; “he climbed the steep slope”; “the house was built on the side of a mountain”

  8. bank – a container (usually with a slot in the top) for keeping money at home; “the coin bank was empty”

coin bank, money box, savings bank

container – any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)

penny bank, piggy bank – a child’s coin bank (often shaped like a pig)

  9. bank – a building in which the business of banking transacted; “the bank is on the corner of Nassau and Witherspoon”

bank building

depositary, depository, repository, deposit – a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

bank vault, vault – a strongroom or compartment (often made of steel) for safekeeping of valuables

  10. bank – a flight maneuver; aircraft tips laterally about its longitudinal axis (especially in turning); “the plane went into a steep bank”

vertical bank – a bank so steep that the plane’s lateral axis approaches the vertical

airplane maneuver, flight maneuver – a maneuver executed by an aircraft

Verb 1. bank – tip laterally; “the pilot had to bank the aircraft”

tip – cause to tilt; “tip the screen upward”

  2. bank – enclose with a bank; “bank roads”

inclose, shut in, close in, enclose – surround completely; “Darkness enclosed him”; “They closed in the porch with a fence”

  3. bank – do business with a bank or keep an account at a bank; “Where do you bank in this town?”

transact – conduct business; “transact with foreign governments”

  4. bank – act as the banker in a game or in gambling

act – discharge one’s duties; “She acts as the chair”; “In what capacity are you acting?”

bank – be in the banking business

  5. bank – be in the banking business

bank – act as the banker in a game or in gambling

do work, work – be employed; “Is your husband working again?”; “My wife never worked”; “Do you want to work after the age of 60?”; “She never did any work because she inherited a lot of money”; “She works as a waitress to put herself through college”

  6. bank – put into a bank account; “She deposits her paycheck every month”


give – transfer possession of something concrete or abstract to somebody; “I gave her my money”; “can you give me lessons?”; “She gave the children lots of love and tender loving care”

redeposit – deposit once again; “redeposit a cheque”

  7. bank – cover with ashes so to control the rate of burning; “bank a fire”

cover – provide with a covering or cause to be covered; “cover her face with a handkerchief”; “cover the child with a blanket”; “cover the grave with flowers”

  8. bank – have confidence or faith in; “We can trust in God”; “Rely on your friends”; “bank on your good education”; “I swear by my grandmother’s recipes”

rely, trust, swear

believe – accept as true; take to be true; “I believed his report”; “We didn’t believe his stories from the War”; “She believes in spirits”

credit – have trust in; trust in the truth or veracity of

lean – rely on for support; “We can lean on this man”

depend, bet, reckon, calculate, count, look – have faith or confidence in; “you can count on me to help you any time”; “Look to your friends for support”; “You can bet on that!”; “Depend on your family in times of crisis”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.



Noun 1. bookkeeping – the activity of recording business transactions


accountancy, accounting – the occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business

single entry, single-entry bookkeeping – a simple bookkeeping system; transactions are entered in only one account

double entry, double-entry bookkeeping – bookkeeper debits the transaction to one account and credits it to another

posting – (bookkeeping) a listing on the company’s records; “the posting was made in the cash account”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Business enterprises

Noun 1. business enterprise – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

business, commercial enterprise

overcapitalisation, overcapitalization – (business) too much capitalization (the sale of more stock than the business warrants)

tourism, touristry – the business of providing services to tourists; “Tourism is a major business in Bermuda”

operation – the activity of operating something (a machine or business etc.); “her smooth operation of the vehicle gave us a surprisingly comfortable ride”

fishing – the occupation of catching fish for a living

butchering, butchery – the business of a butcher

storage – the commercial enterprise of storing goods and materials

manufacture, industry – the organized action of making of goods and services for sale; “American industry is making increased use of computers to control production”

commerce, commercialism, mercantilism – transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

business activity, commercial activity – activity undertaken as part of a commercial enterprise

business – the volume of commercial activity; “business is good today”; “show me where the business was today”

field of operation, line of business, field – a particular kind of commercial enterprise; “they are outstanding in their field”

market, marketplace, market place – the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold; “without competition there would be no market”; “they were driven from the marketplace”

employee-owned business, employee-owned enterprise – a commercial enterprise owned by the people who work for it

finance – the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

discount business – the business of selling merchandise at a discount

real-estate business – the business of selling real estate

publicizing, advertising – the business of drawing public attention to goods and services

publishing, publication – the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution

printing – the business of producing printed material for sale or distribution

packaging – the business of packing; “his business is packaging for transport”

agribusiness, agriculture, factory farm – a large-scale farming enterprise

building, construction – the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones; “their main business is home construction”; “workers in the building trades”

shipping, transport, transportation – the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

venture – a commercial undertaking that risks a loss but promises a profit

administration, disposal – a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

establishment – a public or private structure (business or governmental or educational) including buildings and equipment for business or residence

gambling den, gambling hell, gambling house, gaming house – a public building in which a variety of games of chance can be played (operated as a business)

astuteness, perspicaciousness, perspicacity, shrewdness – intelligence manifested by being astute (as in business dealings)

cinema, film, celluloid – a medium that disseminates moving pictures; “theater pieces transferred to celluloid”; “this story would be good cinema”; “film coverage of sporting events”

business people, businesspeople – people who transact business (especially business executives)

business sector, business – business concerns collectively; “Government and business could not agree”

chain – (business) a number of similar establishments (stores or restaurants or banks or hotels or theaters) under one ownership

business, business concern, business organisation, business organization, concern – a commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who constitute it; “he bought his brother’s business”; “a small mom-and-pop business”; “a racially integrated business concern”

capitalist – a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Business failures

Business failure


Joe’s was one of the businesses to fail in 2009.

Business failure, or colloquially going out of business, refers to a company ceasing its operations following its inability to make a profit or to bring in enough revenue to cover its expenses. The final step is always that the business runs out of cash. It has been said that running out of cash defines business failure [1]. This is the basis of the expression, “cash is king“.





Noun 1. competition – a business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers; “business competition can be fiendish at times”

business relation – a relation between different business enterprises

price competition, price war – intense competition in which competitors cut retail prices to gain business

  2. competition – an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants


game – a single play of a sport or other contest; “the game lasted two hours”

social event – an event characteristic of persons forming groups

athletic competition, athletic contest, athletics – a contest between athletes

bout – a contest or fight (especially between boxers or wrestlers)

championship – a competition at which a champion is chosen

chicken – a foolhardy competition; a dangerous activity that is continued until one competitor becomes afraid and stops

cliffhanger – a contest whose outcome is uncertain up to the very end

dogfight – a fiercely disputed contest; “their rancor dated from a political dogfight between them”; “a real dogfight for third place”; “a prolonged dogfight over their rival bids for the contract”

race – a contest of speed; “the race is to the swift”

tournament, tourney – a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

playoff – any final competition to determine a championship

series – (sports) several contests played successively by the same teams; “the visiting team swept the series”

field trial – a contest between gun dogs to determine their proficiency in pointing and retrieving

match – a formal contest in which two or more persons or teams compete

tournament – a series of jousts between knights contesting for a prize

race – any competition; “the race for the presidency”

spelldown, spelling bee, spelling contest – a contest in which you are eliminated if you fail to spell a word correctly

trial – (sports) a preliminary competition to determine qualifications; “the trials for the semifinals began yesterday”

  3. competition – the act of competing as for profit or a prize; “the teams were in fierce contention for first place”

rivalry, contention

group action – action taken by a group of people

contest – a struggle between rivals

cooperation – joint operation or action; “their cooperation with us was essential for the success of our mission”

  4. competition – the contestant you hope to defeat; “he had respect for his rivals”; “he wanted to know what the competition was doing”

challenger, competitor, contender, rival

contestant – a person who participates in competitions

champ, champion, title-holder – someone who has won first place in a competition

comer – someone with a promising future

finalist – a contestant who reaches the final stages of a competition

foe, enemy – a personal enemy; “they had been political foes for years”

favourite, front-runner, favorite – a competitor thought likely to win

world-beater, king, queen – a competitor who holds a preeminent position

runner-up, second best – the competitor who finishes second

scratch – a competitor who has withdrawn from competition

semifinalist – one of four competitors remaining in a tournament by elimination

street fighter – a contestant who is very aggressive and willing to use underhand methods

tier – any one of two or more competitors who tie one another

tilter – someone who engages in a tilt or joust

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.



1. rivalry, opposition, struggle, contest, contention, strife, one-upmanship (informal) There’s been some fierce competition for the title.

2. opposition, field, rivals, challengers In this business you have to stay one step ahead of the competition.

3. contest, event, championship, tournament, quiz, head-to-head He will be banned from international competitions for four years.

“A horse never runs so fast as when he has other horses to catch up and outpace” [Ovid The Art of Love]

Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002



Noun 1. customer – someone who pays for goods or services


consumer – a person who uses goods or services

buyer, emptor, purchaser, vendee – a person who buys

guest – a customer of a hotel or restaurant etc.

frequenter, patron – a regular customer

policyholder – a person who holds an insurance policy; usually, the client in whose name an insurance policy is written

shopper – someone who visits stores in search of articles to buy

disburser, expender, spender – someone who spends money to purchase goods or services

reader, subscriber – someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication

taker – one who accepts an offer

warrantee – a customer to whom a warrant or guarantee is given

whoremaster, whoremonger, john, trick – a prostitute’s customer

business relation – a relation between different business enterprises

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Department stores

Noun 1. department store – a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise; commonly part of a retail chain


mercantile establishment, outlet, retail store, sales outlet – a place of business for retailing goods

retail chain – a chain of retail stores

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.




1. the state, quality, or condition of being an entrepreneur, an organizer or promoter of business ventures.
2. the duration of a person’s function as an entrepreneur.




1. Bill Gates is threatened by these two words.  What are these? (2 points)

Answer:   Cloud computing

2.)  Within the context of information systems, will these have any effect at all in libraries?  If NO, why? If YES, explain how these will change the landscape at the Reference desk? You may make use of the RUSA guidelines to be observed by all information providers.  (28 points)

Answer: Yes.

The moment this CLOUD COMPUTING  will take effect in libraries there would be achange in the landscape at the reference desk.

According to Mitchel, E. (2009)  cloud computing in libraries refers to the  abstraction of information technology (IT) software  and services from the  hardware.     It gives a complex services to library IT infrastructure at a lower cost.  This would mean that IT infrastructure is hooked up to the internet  with a vast of information stored and cost savings due to economies of scale and the  fact that “you’re only paying for the resources you actually use.”  (Peters, 2010)

Caintic (2010) explained Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand through the Internet” (Caintic, (p.7).    It simply mean that  the internet is visualized as the cloud where everybody has the access to it without worrying.    It is a shared resources for everyone, making information accessible to students, anytime and anywhere.

This phenomena would have changed the landscape at the Reference Desk in  the way that computers and other gadgets could have been visible in the  Reference Area with different reference services such as online chat, courtesy  texting, sending information using fax machine, email services, OPAC, and  other social networking sites available online.   This   is a paradigm shift beyond the traditional desk at  the Reference  Section.     With this technology, the entire world of the reference section could have been seen in a different  face from cloud of reference books to a cloud computing base.

In this way, the reference librarian must be highly knowledgeable with the technological advancements available online.   He/she must be a keen observer  of everything  to learn many things about technology and must study the RUSA guidelines from the American Library Association (RUSA) in order for him/her  to guided in his/her works.

With the RUSA guidelines, and the librarian would like to quote  “the world of  reference was moving beyond from traditional desk, email and online chat services have since become popular”  RUSA Reference Guidelines, 2004 clarified this study that Reference Desk has evolved from the usual services of the librarian attending students looking  reference  books on shelves, this era has changed rapidly  from a desk of olden times to a  reference desk of a new world.    The  guidelines attest that the reference service  now  is at par with the trend of technology whom the library will be facing in  the  more advance digital future.  However, themoment this  cloud computing will  take effect at the Reference Section  there must be a greater impact on reference service because of the voluminous information available online and  the searching process needed to deliver the best reference service.

With the online searching to be performed by the librarian not only in simply accessing information but on how to process information  it in terms of  reference interview.  Information then be sent through fax, email or chat,  courtesy texting, blogging, etc.   The use of  RUSA guidelines is one of the basis that the presence of technology could not totally replace human relations even though it is well known that  computers have artificial intelligence to process information using the   machine language still the human communication is one of the most powerful tool in achieving good reference service.  In the reference interview process,  the RUSA guidelines study (as cited in Merced, [2010?])  provided a glimpse  on the original 5 main areas of reference and user services : Approachability, Interest, Listening/InquiringSearching, Follow-up,  and the three distinct categories added to the general guidelines namely;  General, In Person, Remote.  

a.) Approachability.     The patrons must be able to identify that the librarian isalways available and provide assistance so they must be comfortable in going to the librarian for help.    Despite the presence of cloud computing the librarian must maintain his/her being approachable so that users may feel comfortable in doing research.  In remote distinct categories,  the librarian must maintain email, chat, courtesy texting services so as to answer every  patron’s need and to satisfy  users.

b.) Interest.  The librarian must provide a degree of interest in the question being asked by the patron/s.     If the librarian will demonstrate high interest in  the question this will generate  high satisfaction on the part of the researcher.    He/she must see to it that users may feel how interested he/she is in answering the query may the user be on near to him or at far place.  Using the cloud computing technology the user must be assured that his/her query is well entertained.

c.) Listening / Inquiring.     The reference interview is the heart of the referencetransaction.    In this manner the librarian must process the query in doing thereference interview.  Strong and questioning skills of the librarian is the key to  a positive interaction.    The librarian must be a good listener and must followthis guiding principle of reference service to make him/her effective in the  delivery of information.

d.) Searching.  In the search guideline the behavior and accuracy intersect.  If the   librarian will not do search with the information needed the patron will also be    affected and therefore will get discourage in doing their  research work/s.   So, it is  very important that the librarian must be  knowledgeable enough in using the search engines and  provide exact information needed with quality services as expected  from him/her.   As the cloud computing will take effect the librarian must explain  the search strategy to the patrons as well as the sources to be used.

e.) Follow-up.     The librarian should not be contented leaving the patron/s after  giving the materials needed but must follow-up the library users whether he/she is contented with the quality of the information being provided with him.    It is very  important that the librarian must also search from outside source on the related topic  needed by the patrons and will give the informationto direct the patron as to where the additional information could be accessed.

“The Virtual Reference Desk recognized this and incorporated an interactive component into their Facets of Quality for Digital Reference Services” RUSA Reference Guidelines, 2004  states  that the reference service must offer an excellent  reference interview so that query must be clarified and users must be satisfied with the service.    It is important to note that along this transaction at the reference section librarian must be  approachable, interested in the question being asked , a good listener,  has the  ability to search  and follow up the users so that the right information for the right reader  must be served.

3.)  Libraries have migrated from 1.0, 2.0, to 3.0.  With the advent of this technology, do you foresee a Library 4.0, 5.0 etc.?   Justify your answer. (20 points).


With the advent of technology, the librarian firmly believed that there would be a Library 4.0 following the  Semantic Web or the Library 3.0. The pace of technological change has affected all citizens in the world over the past 50 years.   Technology has rapidly grow from processing power, smaller gadgets, the Internet, Google, efficient computing devices with more and more data which is the way of the future.  Libraries has evolved with the web.

Based on the trend of technology the librarian purely convinced and strongly believed that there would be another ladder,  another step a library could have stepped-on following the Library 3.0

Morrison (2008) explained that with Web 3.0 comes the transformation of the web into database, a semantic Web with machines talking to machines and collaborative filtering, three dimensional shared spaces, natural-language processing, and your data anytime, anywhere with a lot of audio and video. Social networking sites such as Facebook, will be used increasingly as a means for research to stay connected and expand their network (p. 154)

As clearly elaborated  Library 3.0 continue to improve the service delivery of each agency and to address the researches’ need  in terms of accessing information in the different networking sites and to expand their network.  This is the way where research have granted open access to  all web sites so that information could be accessed anytime and anywhere.   The system had increase readership among downloaded articles and so too with citations.     As we move from Web 2.0 to Web 3.0  we will be seeing direct integration into the websites more content-delivery options and more participation by researchers in social networking sites.

“From a single library to a networked of libraries; from one collection to distributed collections; from the catalog interface to multiple interfaces; from books and journals to information fields and streams encompassing traditional and non-traditional forms of scholarly communication. These include such diverse forms and genres as preprints, traditional publications, informal commentary, data sets, software applications, maps, video, clips, listserv archives, and web pages – all accessible, at least in principle, anytime and anywhere” (Libner, 2003).   

According to Libner as stated, the impact and trend of technology has driven for change from the traditional library to a  technological way of virtualization.    It is important to look at the trend in technology from a single  library to a networked of libraries with digital collections, remote access and virtual references.    So is, with the arrival of cloud computing in the nearest future the library as an agent of change may not be exempted to this phenomenon but rather the total recipient of this changes.    No one can be contented with the stagnant way of serving people but everybody is forging ahead to climb the ladder of technological advancements so libraries could be on top on this endeavor.   Future libraries would be a  library of cloud computing and could be regarded as Library 4.0.

With Library 4.0  “Everything placed on the web will get a unique location and web itself synthesis and analyze every part of the published content”   (Chauhan, 2009).   Thisstatement clarifies that everything will have its own URL and the web itself has its own machine language to translate, transmit and receive  data online. Everybody can access to information regardless of time and place.      In this era, open access system will be on top of its services and it is said that web will be divided into two parts, the “Learning Web” and the “Spamming Web” or the “Trashing Web”   In this scenario the “Learning Web” will become the enormous virtual library  which everybody does  have accessed to it using the cloud computing.

4. Information resources now have the printed and online versions with both retaining much of their characteristics.  Slowly, however, there is a migration towards all of them being born digital with seamless differentiation.  Will the producers, manufacturers, consolidators, providers, publishers, and aggregators of these information resources, embrace this emerging technology?  Will libraries and information centers follow suit? Why or why not?  Justify your answers. (50 points).


Yes, producers, manufacturers, consolidators, providers, publishers, and aggregators of these information resources, embrace this emerging technology, so is with libraries.    With the libraries facing the digital future  libraries have transformed into “nextgeneration resource centres” Weiner (2011). People will bring their technologies to libraries.  The use of e-books and e-journals  has absolutely increased thereby making libraries embraced the emerging  technologies  among libraries around the world.    Readership would have been increased so too with citations in an online searching.   The library use of e-journals dates back 10 years, when it subscribed to 4,000 electronic publications.  This figure has climbed to 35,000 and last year students and staff carried out 1.5 downloads of e-journals according to Poulsen.

In 2010, Copenhagen Business School’s budget for electronic books was 72,000 pound, but this year that leap to 130,000 pound and it now spends about 45% of its book budget on digital publications.  Provided glimpses on the figure the librarian radically  affirmed that libraries are embracing emerging technology to cope up with the present demands of the today’s users who  are “digital native”.  Following the modern trend of technology itis inevitable that libraries would take this paradigm shift  from print to digital. Libraries were developed and continued to be developed to fit the diverse needs of patrons who are born “digital native.”

According to the Library Journal 2011 survey of e-book penetration and use in libraries, 95% of academic, 82% of public, and 44% of school libraries are already offering e- books.   It is imperative to note that with this figure given alone, the writer librarian firmly believed  that libraries are indeed shifting from print to digital to respond with the growing demands of technology in libraries.

These days, you don’t have to go anywhere near a library to check out an e-book. You can download one to your digital device in a matter of seconds.”  (Neary, 2011)

Logically, libraries resolved to adopt emerging technologies to expand collections, lesser costs, and comforts in handling resources compared to the printed collections.  There is no point of rejecting the idea not to migrate from print to digitization because the users in the 21st century are “digital native”    that comprise 21st century library customers and create significant differences  in library service demands.   This drastic difference creates a heavy demand on librarian to continue traditional services to some patrons while creating new technology based to “digital native” customers.  With an evident from  printed book to e- book from printed journal to e-journal (ProQuest) the librarian concluded that libraries had  embraced this emerging technology, all of them born digital with seamless differentiation.

Bibliographical References

1. American Library  Association (2004) RUSA Reference Guidelines for Behavioral performance of reference and information service providers.  Retrieved Feb. 4, 2011 from

2. Baskin, P. (2008). Emerging Technologies in Publishing. Science Editor. 31(5) 154 Retrieved from

3. Caintic, V. (2010). Cloud Computing for Networked  Libraries and  Information Centers.  Retrieved Feb. 6, 2011  from

4. Chauhan, S. K. Library 4.0 Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

5. Cross, A. (2009).  The two words Bill Gates doesn’t want to hear…Retrieved February  4, 2011. Alexandria, VA : The Mootley Fool.  (Email to F. de la Cruz re:   Final Exam in LIS 201A.

6. Davis, V.  (2011). Become the future…librarian 3.0.  Retrieved February 5, 2012 from

7. Feng, X., Bao, L. (2011). Research of user service model based on cloud computing in university library. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

8. Five challenges every librarian must face. (20011, Oct. 3) Retrieved February 5, 2012 from

9. How can libraries use the cloud? (2008) Retrieved February 5, 2012 from

10. Merced, B. (2010).  Professional Competencies for Reference and User Services Librarians. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2011  from

11. Murdock, J. (n.d.) Libraries face a digital future. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012.

12. Peters, C. (2010, March 6). What is cloud computing and how will it affect libraries? Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

13. Polanka, S. (2011).  A guide to ebook purchasing. Retrieved February 8, 2012 from

14. Sanchati, R., Kulkarni, Gaurav. (2011, July). Cloud computing in digital and university libraries. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology.  Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

15. Shaw, G., Todd, H. (2007). Library 3.0 : where art our skills? Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

16. Singh, D. (2012, Jan. 10).  Using cloud services for library IT infrastructure. Code {4} Lib Journal. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2012 from

Library Instruction

The Card Catalog

The Card Catalog is an index to all library collections.  It is a cabinet containing trays.  Inside the tray is the 3X5 cards arranged alphabetically by author, title and the subject.


  1. Author Card
  2. Title Card
  3. Subject card




The section  contains  the bibliographic annotation on  tourism.   It  includes contentson travel  around the world.    Following is the list books with their annotations. 


1. Bateman, Graham, ed. (2007).  The encyclopedia of world  geography.   Hoo,  Near Rochester Kent ME3 9ND : Grange Books.

This encyclopedia spans every nation of the world, including all countries that came into being as a result of the breakups of the Soviet Union,Yugoslavia, and Czechoslvakia.   At the heart of this encyclopedia are detailed countries profile.   Countries are grouped by region, with maps included.   The geography, society, economy, climate, topography , plant and animal life, historical events, culture, industry are described.   The entry of each country includes its flag, a locator map, and a Fact Panel to highlight key statistics.   The encyclopedia include special illustrated feature articles about unique aspects of the country.


2. Bright, Michael. ed. (2009). 1001 natural wonders : you must see before   you die.  London : Quintessence Book.

A good reference source of information about the natural wonders of the world.    The editor Michael Bright has selected 1001 of Mother Nature’s most spectacular, heart-stirring creations, sights and locations so breathtaking you will never forget.    This is a compendium of locations  offering the visitor a once in a lifetime experience.   The book is a gateway to the adventure which offered the most colorful features  from lofty mountain peaks to  the dark depths of subterranean worlds, trek across red- hot desserts to the wilds of tropical rainforests, swim emerald green waters  of sheltered lagoons, explore fish-rich coral reefs and witness icebergs carving from giant glaciers.

With this book, your journey come alive.


3. Dervaes, Claudine.  (2010). The travel dictionary.  Australia : Cengage  Learning.   [TM 910.03 D44 2010].

Designed to assist travel industry personnel and travelers  by providing helpful reference information.  The first information given is the list of standard abbreviations for states/provinces.  Then followed by the  list of industry organizations, agency co-ops, consortia, licensee groups and chains.   The city/airport codes follow-in a decoding and encoding formats.  Airline codes are next (decoding , then encoding).  The “A to Z of Codes and Terms” covers a variety of subject areas, such as geography, politics, language, economics, religion, food and art.   Many terms are included for those who are not familiar with the U. S. Terminology.  A brief decoding/definition is provided for the most items so that users may have full understanding of the terms.

4. The travel book. (2010). Australia : Lonely Planet.  [TM 910 T69 2010].

In this book you’ll find evocative glimpses of every single country of the world. The glorious secrets of 230 countries are emphasized with illustrative pictures.  The travel book offers a glimpse of each country’s perks and quirks.    It’s a book that unashamedly views the planet through the prism of the traveler, focusing on places for their beauty, charm or singularity, even if this does sometimes conflict with defined political and geographical borders.

5. National Geographic. (2007).   Journeys of a lifetime : 500 of the  world’s    greatest trips.  Washington, D. C. : National Geographic.    [TM 910.4  N21 2007].

Inside this book  is  a gorgeous photos, colored maps,  and expert advice to make the journey a reality.    Each chapter showcases a different mode of transport or type of the trip, satisfying your wanderlust in hiking boots in the Swiss Alps, or aboard a helicopter over Angkor Wat; tour the tapas bars of  Barcelona or the wineries of the Napa Valley, or work off those calories by hiking the Milford Track in New Zealand.  Whether you’re a culture vulture or a history lover who wants to follow the footsteps of Alexander the Great or Charles Darwin, there’s a trip for you.

Let the National Geographic help you rediscover the pleasure of the journey. So go, explore and see the world.



This is an annotated bibliography on the subject Hotel and Restaurant Management.   It is very important that references  are annotated because annotations help the researcher determine which sources are relevant to a line of inquiry.

1. Begley, Laura, et. al. ed.  (2008).  The world’s greatest hotels  resorts + SPAS.     New York : Travel Leisure Books.

Contains a list of hotels and resorts around the world.      The editors present the most significant properties of the year-as well as the top reader-ranked places of the world’s best awards hotels and resorts.       Vivid images by Travel + Leisure’s  team of award winning photographers convey the atmospheres of the destinations.

Travel + Leisure propels its readers  to travel now, travel smarther, and travel often.

2. Broom, Dave. (2010). The complete bartender’s guide.   London  Carlton Books.

The handbook is for everybody who wants to become a barman, either professionally or just to show off to family and friends.   The centerpiece of the book is the comprehensive cocktails section which provide recipes and mixing instruction for around 600 drinks with special features on 12 classic cocktails, detailing their history and the bartender responsible for the invention.

3. Brown, Graham, Hepner, Karon.  (2009). The waiter’s handbook.  Australia :    Pearson/Education.  [HRM 642.6 B82 2009].

Designed as a basic training aid to waiters involved in  the service of food and beverages.      The main text introduces to all users  the equipment the waiter is likely to use in  its applications.

This book suggests that both food and beverage service should take place clockwise round the table starting with the guest on the left of the host, and finishing with the host.   A chapter on beverage product knowledge and a new section on dietary is provided for the readers

With this training handbook the waiter’s trainee with gain confidence and  more experiences throughout their working careers.

4. James, Mary., compiler. (2007).  Lotus illustrated dictionary of cooking   & food.   New Delhi : Lotus.

This dictionary is an exhaustive compilation of the terms and explanations related to food, health, nutrition and cooking.   It includes most of the terminology used in and around the household.    The explanation are written in a very comprehensible and easy-to-understand format so as to help the general readers.

5. Knorr, Paul. (2010).  The vodka bible.   New York : Sterling Innovation.   [HRM 641.25 K75 2010].

This is your go-to-guide whether you’re entertaining guests or relaxing at the end of the day.  It has two thousand classic, current, and favorite vodka recipes. The book is organized into chapters by  beverage type, from martinis and cocktails to blended and frozen drinks.   Knorr’s tips on the necessary tools  and supplies of the trade will ensure you have a well-stocked bar.   He also include fascinating facts about vodka; a resource list on the world’s famous vodkas, their geographic locations, unique qualities and brand websites to make quick searches by drink names.

6. Labensky, Steven, et. al. (2008). The Prentice Hall dictionary of culinary  arts.   Singapore : Prentice Hall.

Contain list 25,000 entries on topics such as ingredients preparation methods, restaurant management, wine and wine making,cooking equipment, food history, food safety and sanitation, nutrition, prepared dishes and many more that truly define culinary arts.  The book provide spelling for the term including transliterations.

7.  Monroe, James C.  (2006). The Event : complete guide to designing and   decorating special events. New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons.

This books serves as the ultimate guide to designing and decorating events and celebrations.  It explains how to decorate a venue for a special event from assessing the client’s décor needs.   With expert advice and practical guidance from the author this book is useful and unique.

The reader will find this book the essential ingredients for success needed in event management niche.


Reference Services Philosophy

A user-friendly library to support the teaching-learning process.

All library users, students, faculty and staff are welcome to the library.    The library is designed that fits all  types of users in a friendly environment.   It is  attractive, a comforting place, conducive to learning.

The core aspects of reference service is to assist the readers in their research needs.   The reference librarian must ensure every user of a friendly assistance with regards to their queries.   In some aspects there is a  shift of services from the traditional bibliographic instruction on how to locate reference sources  to teaching information literacy.  In this  way the users are  guided to become  independent researcher.   It is our goal in the reference area that students must be kept informed on the    availability and the validity of the resources posted on the different websites.  It is important that students become aware on the kind of information they are looking for whether these information are written by people who are expert in the field or just written by anyone who had just posted information on the net without being censored.

Everyone is free to consult the reference librarian for any reference query.  Librarian is knowledgeable of the reference sources that the library has so that reference questions can be addressed well. We provide reference sources that facilitate patron’s research needs.

In the reference desk, it is an apt to include, that to be a user-friendly we must develop commitment, empathy and sincerity which attracts library patrons to go to the library and do research for their study.    Certainly,  it is the task of the librarian to provide good reference service  and employ accuracy in the resources presented, the reliability of it, and the value of each source for the information need.

Finally, the reference librarian give emphasis on the student’s need.  Any query would be answered with references to the topic being asked.  Users are to be assured that their queries are given priority  over other work/s.   Through the reference service all queries are entertained  and the materials are being ready so that  retrieval of information could be done quickly.    We value the users  first, making prompt service  a proactive  in all manner, take personal responsibility for providing service that is convenient,  and efficient.  It is assured that the library  reference service is a user-friendly and supports the teaching-learning process in the curriculum.


A Pathfinder is a guide to the resources in a particular subject area. It is a subject-oriented research guide designed to encourage researchers a self-directed use of the library.

The Information-Reference Section provides pathfinders basically to support students and faculty in their search for recorded  resources.

Pathfinder :   Tourist Trade

Scoop Note :   The business of providing services for people who are traveling for their holiday.A  recreational purposes or the provision of services to support leisure travel.

Used For:

  • Tourism
  • Tourist industry
  • Tourists
  • Travel industry

Broader Term :

  • Commerce

Narrower Term:

  • Cultural tourism
  • Ecotourism

Related Term :

  • Travel


1.  Bateman, Graham, ed. (2007).  The encyclopedia of world geography.   Hoo,  Near Rochester Kent ME3 9ND  : Grange Books.

2. Bright, Michael. ed. (2009). 1001 natural wonders : you must see  before   you die.  London : Quintessence Book.

3. Dervaes, Claudine.  (2010). The travel dictionary.  Australia : Cengage  Learning.   [TM 910.03 D44 2010].

           4. The travel book. (2010). Australia : Lonely Planet [TM 910 T69 2010].

5. National Geographic. (2007).   Journeys of a lifetime : 500 of the  world’s    greatest trips.  Washington, D. C. :  National    Geographic.   [TM 910.4  N21 2007].


Pathfinder :  Hotel and Restaurant Management

Scope Note:  Hotel and restaurant management improve the profitability of  businesses by ensuring quality control and a pleasant experience for  customers. Provide a smooth functioning system within the hotel or restaurant.

Use For:

  • Boarding houses
  • Inns
  • Motels
  • Rooming houses
  • Tourist accommodations

Broader Term:

  • Service industries

Narrower Term:

  • Bed and breakfasts accommodations
  • Youth hostels


Reference sources located at the Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) area.

1. Begley, Laura, et. al. ed.  (2008).  The world’s greatest hotels resorts + SPAS.     New York : Travel Leisure Books.

2. Broom, Dave. (2010). The complete bartender’s guide.   London   Carlton Books

3. Brown, Graham, Hepner, Karon.  (2009). The waiter’s handbook.  Australia :    Pearson/Education.  [HRM 642.6 B82 2009].

4. James, Mary., compiler. (2007).  Lotus illustrated dictionary of cooking & food.   New Delhi : Lotus.

5. Knorr, Paul. (2010).  The vodka bible.   New York : Sterling Innovation. [HRM 641.25 K75 2010].

6. Labensky, Steven, et. al. (2008). The Prentice Hall dictionary of culinary  arts.   Singapore : Prentice Hall.

Pathfinder : Event Management

Scope Note :

A function requiring public assembly of celebration, education, marketing, and reunion. The process that includes research, design, planning, coordinating, and evaluation of events.
Source: The International Dictionary of Event Management.

Use For :

  • Events planning
  • Special events
  • Promotion of special events

Broader Term:

  • Planning

Related Terms:

  • Promoters
  • Trade shows
  • Exhibitions

1. Monroe, James C.  (2006). The Event : complete guide to designing and   decorating special events. New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons.

2. McCartney, Glenn. (2010).  Event Management : an Asian perspective   Singapore : McGraw-Hill. 


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