1. Bill Gates is threatened by these two words.  What are these? (2 points)

Answer:   Cloud computing

2.)  Within the context of information systems, will these have any effect at all in libraries?  If NO, why? If YES, explain how these will change the landscape at the Reference desk? You may make use of the RUSA guidelines to be observed by all information providers.  (28 points)

Answer: Yes.

The moment this CLOUD COMPUTING  will take effect in libraries there would be achange in the landscape at the reference desk.

According to Mitchel, E. (2009)  cloud computing in libraries refers to the  abstraction of information technology (IT) software  and services from the  hardware.     It gives a complex services to library IT infrastructure at a lower cost.  This would mean that IT infrastructure is hooked up to the internet  with a vast of information stored and cost savings due to economies of scale and the  fact that “you’re only paying for the resources you actually use.”  (Peters, 2010)

Caintic (2010) explained Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand through the Internet” (Caintic, (p.7).    It simply mean that  the internet is visualized as the cloud where everybody has the access to it without worrying.    It is a shared resources for everyone, making information accessible to students, anytime and anywhere.

This phenomena would have changed the landscape at the Reference Desk in  the way that computers and other gadgets could have been visible in the  Reference Area with different reference services such as online chat, courtesy  texting, sending information using fax machine, email services, OPAC, and  other social networking sites available online.   This   is a paradigm shift beyond the traditional desk at  the Reference  Section.     With this technology, the entire world of the reference section could have been seen in a different  face from cloud of reference books to a cloud computing base.

In this way, the reference librarian must be highly knowledgeable with the technological advancements available online.   He/she must be a keen observer  of everything  to learn many things about technology and must study the RUSA guidelines from the American Library Association (RUSA) in order for him/her  to guided in his/her works.

With the RUSA guidelines, and the librarian would like to quote  “the world of  reference was moving beyond from traditional desk, email and online chat services have since become popular”  RUSA Reference Guidelines, 2004 http://www.ala.org clarified this study that Reference Desk has evolved from the usual services of the librarian attending students looking  reference  books on shelves, this era has changed rapidly  from a desk of olden times to a  reference desk of a new world.    The  guidelines attest that the reference service  now  is at par with the trend of technology whom the library will be facing in  the  more advance digital future.  However, themoment this  cloud computing will  take effect at the Reference Section  there must be a greater impact on reference service because of the voluminous information available online and  the searching process needed to deliver the best reference service.

With the online searching to be performed by the librarian not only in simply accessing information but on how to process information  it in terms of  reference interview.  Information then be sent through fax, email or chat,  courtesy texting, blogging, etc.   The use of  RUSA guidelines is one of the basis that the presence of technology could not totally replace human relations even though it is well known that  computers have artificial intelligence to process information using the   machine language still the human communication is one of the most powerful tool in achieving good reference service.  In the reference interview process,  the RUSA guidelines http://www.ala.org study (as cited in Merced, [2010?])  provided a glimpse  on the original 5 main areas of reference and user services : Approachability, Interest, Listening/InquiringSearching, Follow-up,  and the three distinct categories added to the general guidelines namely;  General, In Person, Remote.  

a.) Approachability.     The patrons must be able to identify that the librarian isalways available and provide assistance so they must be comfortable in going to the librarian for help.    Despite the presence of cloud computing the librarian must maintain his/her being approachable so that users may feel comfortable in doing research.  In remote distinct categories,  the librarian must maintain email, chat, courtesy texting services so as to answer every  patron’s need and to satisfy  users.

b.) Interest.  The librarian must provide a degree of interest in the question being asked by the patron/s.     If the librarian will demonstrate high interest in  the question this will generate  high satisfaction on the part of the researcher.    He/she must see to it that users may feel how interested he/she is in answering the query may the user be on near to him or at far place.  Using the cloud computing technology the user must be assured that his/her query is well entertained.

c.) Listening / Inquiring.     The reference interview is the heart of the referencetransaction.    In this manner the librarian must process the query in doing thereference interview.  Strong and questioning skills of the librarian is the key to  a positive interaction.    The librarian must be a good listener and must followthis guiding principle of reference service to make him/her effective in the  delivery of information.

d.) Searching.  In the search guideline the behavior and accuracy intersect.  If the   librarian will not do search with the information needed the patron will also be    affected and therefore will get discourage in doing their  research work/s.   So, it is  very important that the librarian must be  knowledgeable enough in using the search engines and  provide exact information needed with quality services as expected  from him/her.   As the cloud computing will take effect the librarian must explain  the search strategy to the patrons as well as the sources to be used.

e.) Follow-up.     The librarian should not be contented leaving the patron/s after  giving the materials needed but must follow-up the library users whether he/she is contented with the quality of the information being provided with him.    It is very  important that the librarian must also search from outside source on the related topic  needed by the patrons and will give the informationto direct the patron as to where the additional information could be accessed.

“The Virtual Reference Desk recognized this and incorporated an interactive component into their Facets of Quality for Digital Reference Services” RUSA Reference Guidelines  http://www.ala.org, 2004  states  that the reference service must offer an excellent  reference interview so that query must be clarified and users must be satisfied with the service.    It is important to note that along this transaction at the reference section librarian must be  approachable, interested in the question being asked , a good listener,  has the  ability to search  and follow up the users so that the right information for the right reader  must be served.

3.)  Libraries have migrated from 1.0, 2.0, to 3.0.  With the advent of this technology, do you foresee a Library 4.0, 5.0 etc.?   Justify your answer. (20 points).


With the advent of technology, the librarian firmly believed that there would be a Library 4.0 following the  Semantic Web or the Library 3.0. The pace of technological change has affected all citizens in the world over the past 50 years.   Technology has rapidly grow from processing power, smaller gadgets, the Internet, Google, efficient computing devices with more and more data which is the way of the future.  Libraries has evolved with the web.

Based on the trend of technology the librarian purely convinced and strongly believed that there would be another ladder,  another step a library could have stepped-on following the Library 3.0

Morrison (2008) explained that with Web 3.0 comes the transformation of the web into database, a semantic Web with machines talking to machines and collaborative filtering, three dimensional shared spaces, natural-language processing, and your data anytime, anywhere with a lot of audio and video. Social networking sites such as Facebook, will be used increasingly as a means for research to stay connected and expand their network (p. 154)

As clearly elaborated  Library 3.0 continue to improve the service delivery of each agency and to address the researches’ need  in terms of accessing information in the different networking sites and to expand their network.  This is the way where research have granted open access to  all web sites so that information could be accessed anytime and anywhere.   The system had increase readership among downloaded articles and so too with citations.     As we move from Web 2.0 to Web 3.0  we will be seeing direct integration into the websites more content-delivery options and more participation by researchers in social networking sites.

“From a single library to a networked of libraries; from one collection to distributed collections; from the catalog interface to multiple interfaces; from books and journals to information fields and streams encompassing traditional and non-traditional forms of scholarly communication. These include such diverse forms and genres as preprints, traditional publications, informal commentary, data sets, software applications, maps, video, clips, listserv archives, and web pages – all accessible, at least in principle, anytime and anywhere” (Libner, 2003).   

According to Libner as stated, the impact and trend of technology has driven for change from the traditional library to a  technological way of virtualization.    It is important to look at the trend in technology from a single  library to a networked of libraries with digital collections, remote access and virtual references.    So is, with the arrival of cloud computing in the nearest future the library as an agent of change may not be exempted to this phenomenon but rather the total recipient of this changes.    No one can be contented with the stagnant way of serving people but everybody is forging ahead to climb the ladder of technological advancements so libraries could be on top on this endeavor.   Future libraries would be a  library of cloud computing and could be regarded as Library 4.0.

With Library 4.0  “Everything placed on the web will get a unique location and web itself synthesis and analyze every part of the published content”   (Chauhan, 2009).   Thisstatement clarifies that everything will have its own URL and the web itself has its own machine language to translate, transmit and receive  data online. Everybody can access to information regardless of time and place.      In this era, open access system will be on top of its services and it is said that web will be divided into two parts, the “Learning Web” and the “Spamming Web” or the “Trashing Web”   In this scenario the “Learning Web” will become the enormous virtual library  which everybody does  have accessed to it using the cloud computing.

4. Information resources now have the printed and online versions with both retaining much of their characteristics.  Slowly, however, there is a migration towards all of them being born digital with seamless differentiation.  Will the producers, manufacturers, consolidators, providers, publishers, and aggregators of these information resources, embrace this emerging technology?  Will libraries and information centers follow suit? Why or why not?  Justify your answers. (50 points).


Yes, producers, manufacturers, consolidators, providers, publishers, and aggregators of these information resources, embrace this emerging technology, so is with libraries.    With the libraries facing the digital future  libraries have transformed into “nextgeneration resource centres” Weiner (2011). People will bring their technologies to libraries.  The use of e-books and e-journals  has absolutely increased thereby making libraries embraced the emerging  technologies  among libraries around the world.    Readership would have been increased so too with citations in an online searching.   The library use of e-journals dates back 10 years, when it subscribed to 4,000 electronic publications.  This figure has climbed to 35,000 and last year students and staff carried out 1.5 downloads of e-journals according to Poulsen.

In 2010, Copenhagen Business School’s budget for electronic books was 72,000 pound, but this year that leap to 130,000 pound and it now spends about 45% of its book budget on digital publications.  Provided glimpses on the figure the librarian radically  affirmed that libraries are embracing emerging technology to cope up with the present demands of the today’s users who  are “digital native”.  Following the modern trend of technology itis inevitable that libraries would take this paradigm shift  from print to digital. Libraries were developed and continued to be developed to fit the diverse needs of patrons who are born “digital native.”

According to the Library Journal 2011 survey of e-book penetration and use in libraries, 95% of academic, 82% of public, and 44% of school libraries are already offering e- books.   It is imperative to note that with this figure given alone, the writer librarian firmly believed  that libraries are indeed shifting from print to digital to respond with the growing demands of technology in libraries.

These days, you don’t have to go anywhere near a library to check out an e-book. You can download one to your digital device in a matter of seconds.”  (Neary, 2011)

Logically, libraries resolved to adopt emerging technologies to expand collections, lesser costs, and comforts in handling resources compared to the printed collections.  There is no point of rejecting the idea not to migrate from print to digitization because the users in the 21st century are “digital native”    that comprise 21st century library customers and create significant differences  in library service demands.   This drastic difference creates a heavy demand on librarian to continue traditional services to some patrons while creating new technology based to “digital native” customers.  With an evident from  printed book to e- book from printed journal to e-journal (ProQuest) the librarian concluded that libraries had  embraced this emerging technology, all of them born digital with seamless differentiation.

Bibliographical References

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