Thesaurus Construction Guidelines


Acronyms are spelled out in full to  establish a single semantic and prevent disambiguation.

Terms included  are taken from the Sear’s List of Subject Headings.

Synonyms and antonyms are included to aid people in identifying terms and for easy retrieval.

Meanings are included to clarify the term use and to guide the users.

Compound nouns are stated in plural form.

In general, indexing terms are controlled vocabulary.

Purpose of these guidelines

The guidelines provide information on the key concepts underlying the use of, and component parts of, a keyword thesaurus.

These guidelines form part of the framework of rules in formulating the concepts in making this thesaurus and to guide the users in selecting the term.

Features of a thesaurus

A thesaurus is a list of controlled terms that is structured though relationships between terms..

As a tool to title records, a thesaurus has a number of features that make it more user-friendly than its close relative.  A thesaurus may have:

  • multiple entry points to guide users to preferred terms and correct titles
  • scope notes
  • strict control of language, and
  • alphabetical or hierarchical presentation.

When compiling a thesaurus, it is important to use the features that suit the particular implementation needs by the users.

Hierarchical relationships

A hierarchy is formed when a preferred term represents a concept which can be linked to another term with a broader or narrower meaning.

Broader term or BT indicates that there is a term with a wider meaning than the term given. Conversely, narrower term or NT indicates that there is a more specific concept than the one listed.

Equivalence relationships

The use of preferred and non-preferred terms is a characteristic of a controlled language thesaurus. Preferred terms are permitted terms that can be used to represent a given concept. Non-preferred terms, also known as ‘forbidden’ terms, are not used to classify documents and records. They are included in the thesaurus to act as pointers to preferred terms.

This relationship between preferred and non-preferred terms is the equivalence relationship. When two or more terms can be used to refer to a given concept, one is selected as the preferred term to be used in the classification scheme. Non-preferred terms are included in the thesaurus, as access points for users.

Scope notes

Scope notes are used to clarify the exact meaning of a term and also when to use it in the context of a thesaurus.



            A thesaurus is a structured collection of concepts and terms for the purpose of improving the retrieval of information. It  should help the searcher to find good search terms, whether they be descriptors from a controlled vocabulary or the manifold terms needed for a comprehensive free-text search.

This listing provides  a substantial body of terms for subject indexing on the course on Business.




Scope Note:


 An economic system in which goods and services are exchanged for one another or money, on the basis of their perceived worth. Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis. A business is a legal entity that is set-up or designed to make goods, sell goods, or provide a service. Many businesses are for-profit organizations as opposed to a non-profit organization or hobby job. How an organization is structured affects how a business is run, how it is taxed, and how profits are distributed. The actual business structure can also affect the personal liability of any owners of the business.



Main entry:



busi·ness  (bzns)



a. The occupation, work, or trade in which a person is engaged: the wholesale food business.

b. A specific occupation or pursuit: the best designer in the business.

2. Commercial, industrial, or professional dealings: new systems now being used in business.

3. A commercial enterprise or establishment: bought his uncle’s business.

4. Volume or amount of commercial trade: Business had fallen off.

5. Commercial dealings; patronage: took her business to a trustworthy salesperson.


a. One’s rightful or proper concern or interest: “The business of America is business” (Calvin Coolidge).

b. Something involving one personally: It’s none of my business.

7. Serious work or endeavor: got right down to business.

8. An affair or matter: “We will proceed no further in this business” (Shakespeare).

9. An incidental action performed by an actor on the stage to fill a pause between lines or to provide interesting detail.

10. Informal Verbal abuse; scolding: gave me the business for being late.

11. Obsolete The condition of being busy.


Parts of Speech Noun


An economic system in which goods and services are exchanged for one another or money, on the basis of their perceived worth. Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to whom its output can be sold at profit on a consistent basis.


Negotiation, barter, subsistence economy, underground economy,  purchasing, Selling, capital, labor, free enterprise, capitalism, fairs, retail trade, contracts, commercial law, bonds, stocks,


Antonyms Unemployment
Non-Preferred Terms



trade  (trd)


1. The business of buying and selling commodities; commerce. See Synonyms at business.

2. The people working in or associated with a business or industry: a textile-exporting publication for the trade.

3. The customers of a specified business or industry; clientele.

4. The act or an instance of buying or selling; transaction.

5. An exchange of one thing for another.

6. An occupation, especially one requiring skilled labor; craft: the building trades, including carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electrical installation.

7. The trade winds. Often used in the plural with the.

v. trad·ed, trad·ing, trades


1. To engage in buying and selling for profit.

2. To make an exchange of one thing for another.

3. To be offered for sale: Stocks traded at lower prices this morning.

4. To shop or buy regularly: trades at the local supermarket.

1. To give in exchange for something else: trade farm products for manufactured goods; will trade my ticket for yours.

2. To buy and sell (stock, for example).

3. To pass back and forth: We traded jokes.


1. Of or relating to trade or commerce.

2. Relating to, used by, or serving a particular trade: a trade magazine.

3. Of or relating to books that are primarily published to be sold commercially, as in bookstores.

Phrasal Verbs:

trade down

To trade something in for something else of lower value or price: bought a new, smaller car, trading the old one down for economy.

trade in

To surrender or sell (an old or used item), using the proceeds as partial payment on a new purchase.

trade on

To put to calculated and often unscrupulous advantage; exploit: children of celebrities who trade on their family names.

trade up

To trade something in for something else of greater value or price: The value of our house soared, enabling us to trade up to a larger place.


Broader Terms : Commerce

Noun1.commerce – transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

commercialism, mercantilism

trading – buying or selling securities or commodities

trade – the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services; “Venice was an important center of trade with the East”; “they are accused of conspiring to constrain trade”

e-commerce – commerce conducted electronically (as on the internet)

interchange, exchange – reciprocal transfer of equivalent sums of money (especially the currencies of different countries); “he earns his living from the interchange of currency”

initial offering, initial public offering, IPO – a corporation’s first offer to sell stock to the public

business enterprise, commercial enterprise, business – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

shipping, transport, transportation – the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

carriage trade – trade from upper-class customers

transaction, dealing, dealings – the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities); “no transactions are possible without him”; “he has always been honest is his dealings with me”

importation, importing – the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country

exporting, exportation – the commercial activity of selling and shipping goods to a foreign country

marketing – the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service; “most companies have a manager in charge of marketing”

distribution – the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer

marketing, merchandising, selling – the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money

traffic – buying and selling; especially illicit trade

defrayal, defrayment, payment – the act of paying money

evasion, nonpayment – the deliberate act of failing to pay money; “his evasion of all his creditors”; “he was indicted for nonpayment”

usance – the period of time permitted by commercial usage for the payment of a bill of exchange (especially a foreign bill of exchange)

commercialise, commercialize, market – make commercial; “Some Amish people have commercialized their way of life”

buy, purchase – obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction; “The family purchased a new car”; “The conglomerate acquired a new company”; “She buys for the big department store”

take – buy, select; “I’ll take a pound of that sausage”

get – purchase; “What did you get at the toy store?”

clear – sell; “We cleared a lot of the old model cars”

turn – get by buying and selling; “the company turned a good profit after a year”

negociate – sell or discount; “negociate securities”

sell – exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent; “He sold his house in January”; “She sells her body to survive and support her drug habit”

sell short – sell securities or commodities or foreign currency that is not actually owned by the seller, who hopes to cover (buy back) the sold items at a lower price and thus to earn a profit

remainder – sell cheaply as remainders; “The publisher remaindered the books”

resell – sell (something) again after having bought it

deaccession – sell (art works) from a collection, especially in order to raise money for the purchase of other art works; “The museum deaccessioned several important works of this painter”

fob off, foist off, palm off – sell as genuine, sell with the intention to deceive

realise, realize – convert into cash; of goods and property

auction, auction off, auctioneer – sell at an auction

sell, trade, deal – do business; offer for sale as for one’s livelihood; “She deals in gold”; “The brothers sell shoes”

transact – conduct business; “transact with foreign governments”

deal – sell; “deal hashish”

retail – sell on the retail market

wholesale – sell in large quantities

liquidize, sell out, sell up – get rid of all one’s merchandise

2.Commerce – the United States federal department that promotes and administers domestic and foreign trade (including management of the census and the patent office); created in 1913

Commerce Department, Department of Commerce, DoC

executive department – a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States

Bureau of the Census, Census Bureau – the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA – an agency in the Department of Commerce that maps the oceans and conserves their living resources; predicts changes to the earth’s environment; provides weather reports and forecasts floods and hurricanes and other natural disasters related to weather

Technology Administration – an agency in the Department of Commerce that works with United States industries to promote competitiveness and maximize the impact of technology on economic growth

Patent and Trademark Office Database, Patent Office – the government bureau in the Department of Commerce that keeps a record of patents and trademarks and grants new ones

3.commerce – social exchange, especially of opinions, attitudes, etc.

conversation – the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information etc.



Noun 1. economics – the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management

economic science, political economy

production – (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; “he introduced more efficient methods of production”

Gresham’s Law – (economics) the principle that when two kinds of money having the same denominational value are in circulation the intrinsically more valuable money will be hoarded and the money of lower intrinsic value will circulate more freely until the intrinsically more valuable money is driven out of circulation; bad money drives out good; credited to Sir Thomas Gresham

economic theory – (economics) a theory of commercial activities (such as the production and consumption of goods)

social science – the branch of science that studies society and the relationships of individual within a society

game theory, theory of games – (economics) a theory of competition stated in terms of gains and losses among opposing players

econometrics – the application of mathematics and statistics to the study of economic and financial data

finance – the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets

macroeconomics – the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a national economy

microeconomics – the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers or households or individual firms

supply-side economics – the school of economic theory that stresses the costs of production as a means of stimulating the economy; advocates policies that raise capital and labor output by increasing the incentive to produce

spillover – (economics) any indirect effect of public expenditure

capital account – (economics) that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s outflow and inflow of financial securities

economic consumption, use of goods and services, usance, consumption, use – (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; “the consumption of energy has increased steadily”

utility – (economics) a measure that is to be maximized in any situation involving choice

marginal utility – (economics) the amount that utility increases with an increase of one unit of an economic good or service

productivity – (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time

monopoly – (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; “a monopoly on silver”; “when you have a monopoly you can ask any price you like”

monopsony – (economics) a market in which goods or services are offered by several sellers but there is only one buyer

oligopoly – (economics) a market in which control over the supply of a commodity is in the hands of a small number of producers and each one can influence prices and affect competitors

moral hazard – (economics) the lack of any incentive to guard against a risk when you are protected against it (as by insurance); “insurance companies are exposed to a moral hazard if the insured party is not honest”

real – of, relating to, or representing an amount that is corrected for inflation; “real prices”; “real income”; “real wages”

nominal – of, relating to, or characteristic of an amount that is not adjusted for inflation; “the nominal GDP”; “nominal interest rates”

inflationary – associated with or tending to cause increases in inflation; “inflationary prices”

deflationary – associated with or tending to cause decreases in consumer prices or increases in the purchasing power of money; “deflationary measures”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


noun finance, commerce, the dismal science He gained a first class degree in economics. see economic organizations and treaties

“We have always known that heedless self-interest was bad morals; we know now that it is bad economics” [Franklin Delano Roosevelt First Inaugural Address]
“The Dismal Science” [Thomas Carlyle Latter-Day Pamphlets]


Branches of economics
agronomics, cliometrics, econometrics, economic history, industrial economics, macroeconomics, microeconomics, welfare economics

Economics terms
arbitration, asset, autarky, automation, balanced budget, balance of payments, balance of trade, balance sheet, bank, bankruptcy, barriers to entry, barriers to exit, barter, base rate, bear market, bid, black economy, boom, boycott, bridging loan, budget, budget deficit, building society, bull market, business cycle, buyer’s market, capacity, capital, capital good, capitalism, cartel, cash, central bank, Chamber of Commerce, closed shop, collective bargaining, command economy or planned economy, commercial bank or clearing bank, commission, commodity, common market, comparative advantage, competition, conspicuous consumption, consumer, consumer good, consumption, cooperative, corporation, corporation tax, cost-benefit analysis, cost effectiveness, cost of living, cost-push inflation, credit, credit controls, credit squeeze, currency, current account, customs union, debt, deflation, deindustrialization, demand, demand management or stabilization policy, demand-pull inflation, deposit account, depreciation, depression, deregulation, devaluation, diminishing returns, discount, discount house (Brit.), discount rate, disequilibrium, disinflation, disposable income, diversification, divestment, dividend, division of labour, dumping, duopoly, durable good, Dutch disease, duty, earned income, earnings, economic growth, economic policy, economic sanctions, economies of scale, embargo, employee, employer, employment, entrepreneur, environmental audit, exchange, exchange rate, expenditure, export, finance, financial year, fiscal drag, fiscal policy, fiscal year, Five-Year Plan, fixed assets, fixed costs, fixed exchange-rate system, fixed investment, floating exchange-rate system, foreclosure, foreign exchange controls, foreign exchange market, forfaiting, franchise, free-market economy, free rider, free trade, free trade area, free trade zone or freeport, freight, friendly society, fringe benefits, full employment, funding, futures market or forward exchange market, gains from trade, game theory, gilt-edged security or government bond, gold standard, greenfield investment, gross domestic product or GDP, gross national product or GNP, gross profit, hard currency, hedging, hire, hire purchase or HP, hoarding, holding, horizontal integration, hot money, human capital, hyperinflation, imperfect competition, import, import restrictions, income, income support, income tax, index-linked, indirect tax, industrial dispute, industrial estate, industrial policy, industrial relations, industrial sector, inflationary spiral, information agreement, infrastructure, inheritance tax, insolvency, instalment credit, institutional investors, insurance, intangible assets, intangibles, intellectual property right, interest, interest rate, international competitiveness, international debt, international reserves, investment, invisible balance, invisible hand, invoice, joint-stock company, joint venture, junk bond, labour, labour market, labour theory of value, laissez faire or laisser faire, lease, legal tender, lender, liability, liquidation, liquid asset, liquidity, listed company, loan, lockout, macroeconomic policy, management buy-out, marginal revenue, marginal utility, market, market failure, mass production, means test, mediation, medium of exchange, medium-term financial strategy, mercantilism, merchant bank, merger, microeconomic policy, middleman, mint, mixed economy, monetarism, monetary compensatory amounts, MCAs, or green money, monetary policy, money, money supply, monopoly, moonlighting, mortgage, multinational, national debt, national income, national insurance contributions, nationalization, national product, natural rate of unemployment, net profit, nondurable good, offshore, oligopoly, overheads, overheating, overmanning, overtime, patent, pawnbroker, pay, pay-as-you-earn or PAYE, payroll, pension, pension fund, per capita income, perfect competition, personal equity plan or PEP, picket, piecework, polluter pays principle, portfolio, poverty trap, premium, premium bond, price, prices and incomes policy, primary sector, private enterprise, private property, privatization, producer, production, productivity, profit, profitability, profit-and-loss account, profit margin, profit sharing, progressive taxation, protectionism, public expenditure, public finance, public interest, public-sector borrowing requirement or PSBR, public-sector debt repayment, public utility, public works, pump priming, purchasing power, quality control, ratchet effect, rational expectations, rationalization, rationing, recession, recommended retail price, recovery, recycling, redundancy, reflation, regional policy, rent, rent controls, research and development or R & D, residual unemployment, restrictive labour practice, retail, retail price index, revaluation, revenue, risk analysis, salary, sales, saving, savings bank, seasonal unemployment, self-employment, self service, self-sufficiency, seller’s market, sequestration, service sector, share, shareholder, share issue, share price index, shop, shop steward, simple interest, slump, social costs, socio-economic group, soft currency, specialization, speculation, stagflation, standard of living, stock, stockbroker, stock control, stock exchange or stock market, stop-go cycle, structural unemployment, subsidiary company, subsidy, supplier, supply, supply-side economics, surplus, synergy, takeover, tangible assets, tariff, tax, taxation, tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax haven, terms of trade, trade, trade barrier, trademark, trade union, trade-weighted index, training, transaction, trust, trustee, underwriter, unearned income, unemployment, unemployment benefit, uniform business rate or UBR, unit of account, unit trust, utility, value-added tax or VAT, variable costs, venture capital, vertical integration, voluntary unemployment, wage, wage restraint, wealth, welfare state, wholesaler, worker participation, working capital, yield

Economics schools and theories
Austrian school, Chicago school, Classical school, Keynesianism, Marxism, mercantilism, monetarism, neoclassical school, neoKeynesians, Physiocrats, Reaganomics, Rogernomics (N.Z.), Thatcherism

Norman Angell (English), Walter Bagehot (British), Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (Italian), William Henry Beveridge (English), John Bright (English), Richard Cobden (English), Augustin Cournot (French), Jacques Delors (French), C(lifford) H(ugh) Douglas (English), Milton Friedman (U.S.), Ragnar Frisch (Norwegian), J(ohn) K(enneth) Galbraith (U.S.), Henry George (U.S.), Friedrich August von Hayek (Austrian-British), David Hume (Scottish), William Stanley Jevons (English), John Maynard Keynes (British), Simon Kuznets (U.S.), Arthur Laffer (U.S.), Stephen Butler Leacock (Canadian), Sicco Leendert Mansholt (Dutch), Arthur Lewis West (Indian), Thomas Robert Malthus (British), Alfred Marshall (British), Karl Marx (German), James Mill (Scottish), John Stuart Mill (English), Jean Monnet (French), Nicole d’ Oresme (French), Andreas (George) Papandreou (Greek), Vilfredo Pareto (Italian), Frédéric Passy (French), A. W. H. Phillips (English), François Quesnay (French), David Ricardo (British), Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (British), Joseph Schumpeter (Austrian), Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi (Swiss), Adam Smith (British), Jan Tinbergen (Dutch), Arnold Toynbee (English), Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (French), Thorstein Veblen (U.S.), Dame Barbara (Mary) Ward (British), Sidney Webb (British), Max Weber (German), Barbara (Frances) Wootton (English)

Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002



Narrower Terms



Banks and banking


Business budgets

Business enterprises

Business failures



Customer relations

Department stores

Economic conditions


Home-based business

Installment plan

Mail-order business




Office management








1.accounting – a convincing explanation that reveals basic causes; “he was unable to give a clear accounting for his actions”

explanation, account – a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.; “the explanation was very simple”; “I expected a brief account”

2.accounting – a system that provides quantitative information about finances

internal control – an accounting procedure or system designed to promote efficiency or assure the implementation of a policy or safeguard assets or avoid fraud and error etc.

system of rules, system – a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; “they have to operate under a system they oppose”; “that language has a complex system for indicating gender”

unearned income, unearned revenue – (accounting) income received but not yet earned (usually considered a current liability on a company’s balance sheet)

straight-line method, straight-line method of depreciation (accounting) a method of calculating depreciation by taking an equal amount of the asset’s cost as an expense for each year of the asset’s useful life

write-down, write-off – (accounting) reduction in the book value of an asset

goodwill, good will (accounting) an intangible asset valued according to the advantage or reputation a business has acquired (over and above its tangible assets)

balance of international payments, balance of payments – a system of recording all of a country’s economic transactions with the rest of the world over a period of one year; “a favorable balance of payments exists when more payments are coming in than going out”

current account – that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s exports and imports of goods and services and transfer payments

limited review, review – (accounting) a service (less exhaustive than an audit) that provides some assurance to interested parties as to the reliability of financial data

inventory – (accounting) the value of a firm’s current assets including raw materials and work in progress and finished goods

debit – enter as debit

3.accounting – the occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business


job, line of work, occupation, business, line – the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money; “he’s not in my line of business”

cost accounting – keeping account of the costs of items in production

bookkeeping, clerking – the activity of recording business transactions

inventory accounting – accounting that controls and evaluates inventory

carry forward, carry over – transfer from one time period to the next

4.accounting – a bookkeeper’s chronological list of related debits and credits of a business; forms part of a ledger of accounts

accounting system, method of accounting

account book, book of account, ledger, leger, book – a record in which commercial accounts are recorded; “they got a subpoena to examine our books”

control account – an account that shows totals of amounts entered in a subsidiary ledger

accounting entry, ledger entry, entry – a written record of a commercial transaction

credit side – account of payments received; usually the right side of a financial statement

debit side – account of payments owed; usually the left side of a financial statement

accrual basis – a method of accounting in which each item is entered as it is earned or incurred regardless of when actual payments are received or made

cash basis – a method of accounting in which each item is entered as payments are received or made

pooling of interest – an accounting method used in the merging of companies; the balance sheets are added together item by item; this method is tax-free

audit, audited account – an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA

limited review, review – (accounting) a service (less exhaustive than an audit) that provides some assurance to interested parties as to the reliability of financial data

register – a book in which names and transactions are listed

5.accounting – a statement of recent transactions and the resulting balance; “they send me an accounting every month”

account statement, account

financial statement, statement – a document showing credits and debits

capital account – (finance) an account of the net value of a business at a specified date

capital account – (economics) that part of the balance of payments recording a nation’s outflow and inflow of financial securities

profit and loss, profit and loss account – an account compiled at the end of an accounting period to show gross and net profit or loss

suspense account – an account used temporarily to carry doubtful receipts and disbursements or discrepancies pending their analysis and permanent classification

balance – equality between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account

expense account, travel and entertainment account – an account to which salespersons or executives can charge travel and entertainment expenses








  1. advertising – a public promotion of some product or service

ad, advert, advertisement, advertizement, advertizing

direct mail – advertising sent directly to prospective customers via the mail

preview, prevue, trailer – an advertisement consisting of short scenes from a motion picture that will appear in the near future

promotion, promotional material, publicity, packaging – a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution; “the packaging of new ideas”

advertorial – an advertisement that is written and presented in the style of an editorial or journalistic report

mailer – an advertisement that is sent by mail

newspaper ad, newspaper advertisement – a printed advertisement that is published in a newspaper

commercial, commercial message – a commercially sponsored ad on radio or television

broadsheet, broadside, circular, flyer, handbill, throwaway, flier, bill – an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet) intended for wide distribution; “he mailed the circular to all subscribers”

teaser – an advertisement that offers something free in order to arouse customers’ interest

top billing – the advertisement of a star’s name at the top of a theatrical poster

  2. advertising – the business of drawing public attention to goods and services


business enterprise, commercial enterprise, business – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

hard sell – forceful and insistent advertising

soft sell – suggestive or persuasive advertising

circularisation, circularization – circulating printed notices as a means of advertising

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Banks and banking

Noun 1. bank – sloping land (especially the slope beside a body of water); “they pulled the canoe up on the bank”; “he sat on the bank of the river and watched the currents”

riverbank, riverside – the bank of a river

incline, slope, side – an elevated geological formation; “he climbed the steep slope”; “the house was built on the side of a mountain”

waterside – land bordering a body of water

  2. bank – a financial institution that accepts deposits and channels the money into lending activities; “he cashed a check at the bank”; “that bank holds the mortgage on my home”

banking company, banking concern, depository financial institution

financial institution, financial organisation, financial organization – an institution (public or private) that collects funds (from the public or other institutions) and invests them in financial assets

banking industry, banking system – banks collectively

credit union – a cooperative depository financial institution whose members can obtain loans from their combined savings

Federal Reserve Bank, reserve bank – one of 12 regional banks that monitor and act as depositories for banks in their region

agent bank – a bank that acts as an agent for a foreign bank

commercial bank, full service bank – a financial institution that accepts demand deposits and makes loans and provides other services for the public

state bank – a bank chartered by a state rather than by the federal government

agent bank, lead bank – a bank named by a lending syndicate of several banks to protect their interests

member bank – a bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System

merchant bank, acquirer – a credit card processing bank; merchants receive credit for credit card receipts less a processing fee

acquirer – a corporation gaining financial control over another corporation or financial institution through a payment in cash or an exchange of stock

thrift institution – a depository financial institution intended to encourage personal savings and home buying

Home Loan Bank – one of 11 regional banks that monitor and make short-term credit advances to thrift institutions in their region

  3. bank – a long ridge or pile; “a huge bank of earth”

bluff – a high steep bank (usually formed by river erosion)

ridge – a long narrow natural elevation or striation

sandbank – a submerged bank of sand near a shore or in a river; can be exposed at low tide

  4. bank – an arrangement of similar objects in a row or in tiers; “he operated a bank of switches”

array – an orderly arrangement; “an array of troops in battle order”

  5. bank – a supply or stock held in reserve for future use (especially in emergencies)

stockpile, reserve, backlog – something kept back or saved for future use or a special purpose

blood bank – a place for storing whole blood or blood plasma; “the Red Cross created a blood bank for emergencies”

eye bank – a place for storing and preserving corneas that are obtained from human corpses immediately after death; used for corneal transplantation to patients with corneal defects

food bank – a place where food is contributed and made available to those in need; “they set up a food bank for the flood victims”

soil bank – land retired from crop cultivation and planted with soil-building crops; government subsidies are paid to farmers for their retired land

  6. bank – the funds held by a gambling house or the dealer in some gambling games; “he tried to break the bank at Monte Carlo”

cash in hand, finances, funds, monetary resource, pecuniary resource – assets in the form of money

  7. bank – a slope in the turn of a road or track; the outside is higher than the inside in order to reduce the effects of centrifugal force

camber, cant

incline, slope, side – an elevated geological formation; “he climbed the steep slope”; “the house was built on the side of a mountain”

  8. bank – a container (usually with a slot in the top) for keeping money at home; “the coin bank was empty”

coin bank, money box, savings bank

container – any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)

penny bank, piggy bank – a child’s coin bank (often shaped like a pig)

  9. bank – a building in which the business of banking transacted; “the bank is on the corner of Nassau and Witherspoon”

bank building

depositary, depository, repository, deposit – a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping

bank vault, vault – a strongroom or compartment (often made of steel) for safekeeping of valuables

  10. bank – a flight maneuver; aircraft tips laterally about its longitudinal axis (especially in turning); “the plane went into a steep bank”

vertical bank – a bank so steep that the plane’s lateral axis approaches the vertical

airplane maneuver, flight maneuver – a maneuver executed by an aircraft

Verb 1. bank – tip laterally; “the pilot had to bank the aircraft”

tip – cause to tilt; “tip the screen upward”

  2. bank – enclose with a bank; “bank roads”

inclose, shut in, close in, enclose – surround completely; “Darkness enclosed him”; “They closed in the porch with a fence”

  3. bank – do business with a bank or keep an account at a bank; “Where do you bank in this town?”

transact – conduct business; “transact with foreign governments”

  4. bank – act as the banker in a game or in gambling

act – discharge one’s duties; “She acts as the chair”; “In what capacity are you acting?”

bank – be in the banking business

  5. bank – be in the banking business

bank – act as the banker in a game or in gambling

do work, work – be employed; “Is your husband working again?”; “My wife never worked”; “Do you want to work after the age of 60?”; “She never did any work because she inherited a lot of money”; “She works as a waitress to put herself through college”

  6. bank – put into a bank account; “She deposits her paycheck every month”


give – transfer possession of something concrete or abstract to somebody; “I gave her my money”; “can you give me lessons?”; “She gave the children lots of love and tender loving care”

redeposit – deposit once again; “redeposit a cheque”

  7. bank – cover with ashes so to control the rate of burning; “bank a fire”

cover – provide with a covering or cause to be covered; “cover her face with a handkerchief”; “cover the child with a blanket”; “cover the grave with flowers”

  8. bank – have confidence or faith in; “We can trust in God”; “Rely on your friends”; “bank on your good education”; “I swear by my grandmother’s recipes”

rely, trust, swear

believe – accept as true; take to be true; “I believed his report”; “We didn’t believe his stories from the War”; “She believes in spirits”

credit – have trust in; trust in the truth or veracity of

lean – rely on for support; “We can lean on this man”

depend, bet, reckon, calculate, count, look – have faith or confidence in; “you can count on me to help you any time”; “Look to your friends for support”; “You can bet on that!”; “Depend on your family in times of crisis”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.



Noun 1. bookkeeping – the activity of recording business transactions


accountancy, accounting – the occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business

single entry, single-entry bookkeeping – a simple bookkeeping system; transactions are entered in only one account

double entry, double-entry bookkeeping – bookkeeper debits the transaction to one account and credits it to another

posting – (bookkeeping) a listing on the company’s records; “the posting was made in the cash account”

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Business enterprises

Noun 1. business enterprise – the activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects; “computers are now widely used in business”

business, commercial enterprise

overcapitalisation, overcapitalization – (business) too much capitalization (the sale of more stock than the business warrants)

tourism, touristry – the business of providing services to tourists; “Tourism is a major business in Bermuda”

operation – the activity of operating something (a machine or business etc.); “her smooth operation of the vehicle gave us a surprisingly comfortable ride”

fishing – the occupation of catching fish for a living

butchering, butchery – the business of a butcher

storage – the commercial enterprise of storing goods and materials

manufacture, industry – the organized action of making of goods and services for sale; “American industry is making increased use of computers to control production”

commerce, commercialism, mercantilism – transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

business activity, commercial activity – activity undertaken as part of a commercial enterprise

business – the volume of commercial activity; “business is good today”; “show me where the business was today”

field of operation, line of business, field – a particular kind of commercial enterprise; “they are outstanding in their field”

market, marketplace, market place – the world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold; “without competition there would be no market”; “they were driven from the marketplace”

employee-owned business, employee-owned enterprise – a commercial enterprise owned by the people who work for it

finance – the commercial activity of providing funds and capital

discount business – the business of selling merchandise at a discount

real-estate business – the business of selling real estate

publicizing, advertising – the business of drawing public attention to goods and services

publishing, publication – the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution

printing – the business of producing printed material for sale or distribution

packaging – the business of packing; “his business is packaging for transport”

agribusiness, agriculture, factory farm – a large-scale farming enterprise

building, construction – the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones; “their main business is home construction”; “workers in the building trades”

shipping, transport, transportation – the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials

venture – a commercial undertaking that risks a loss but promises a profit

administration, disposal – a method of tending to or managing the affairs of a some group of people (especially the group’s business affairs)

establishment – a public or private structure (business or governmental or educational) including buildings and equipment for business or residence

gambling den, gambling hell, gambling house, gaming house – a public building in which a variety of games of chance can be played (operated as a business)

astuteness, perspicaciousness, perspicacity, shrewdness – intelligence manifested by being astute (as in business dealings)

cinema, film, celluloid – a medium that disseminates moving pictures; “theater pieces transferred to celluloid”; “this story would be good cinema”; “film coverage of sporting events”

business people, businesspeople – people who transact business (especially business executives)

business sector, business – business concerns collectively; “Government and business could not agree”

chain – (business) a number of similar establishments (stores or restaurants or banks or hotels or theaters) under one ownership

business, business concern, business organisation, business organization, concern – a commercial or industrial enterprise and the people who constitute it; “he bought his brother’s business”; “a small mom-and-pop business”; “a racially integrated business concern”

capitalist – a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Business failures

Business failure


Joe’s was one of the businesses to fail in 2009.

Business failure, or colloquially going out of business, refers to a company ceasing its operations following its inability to make a profit or to bring in enough revenue to cover its expenses. The final step is always that the business runs out of cash. It has been said that running out of cash defines business failure [1]. This is the basis of the expression, “cash is king“.





Noun 1. competition – a business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers; “business competition can be fiendish at times”

business relation – a relation between different business enterprises

price competition, price war – intense competition in which competitors cut retail prices to gain business

  2. competition – an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants


game – a single play of a sport or other contest; “the game lasted two hours”

social event – an event characteristic of persons forming groups

athletic competition, athletic contest, athletics – a contest between athletes

bout – a contest or fight (especially between boxers or wrestlers)

championship – a competition at which a champion is chosen

chicken – a foolhardy competition; a dangerous activity that is continued until one competitor becomes afraid and stops

cliffhanger – a contest whose outcome is uncertain up to the very end

dogfight – a fiercely disputed contest; “their rancor dated from a political dogfight between them”; “a real dogfight for third place”; “a prolonged dogfight over their rival bids for the contract”

race – a contest of speed; “the race is to the swift”

tournament, tourney – a sporting competition in which contestants play a series of games to decide the winner

playoff – any final competition to determine a championship

series – (sports) several contests played successively by the same teams; “the visiting team swept the series”

field trial – a contest between gun dogs to determine their proficiency in pointing and retrieving

match – a formal contest in which two or more persons or teams compete

tournament – a series of jousts between knights contesting for a prize

race – any competition; “the race for the presidency”

spelldown, spelling bee, spelling contest – a contest in which you are eliminated if you fail to spell a word correctly

trial – (sports) a preliminary competition to determine qualifications; “the trials for the semifinals began yesterday”

  3. competition – the act of competing as for profit or a prize; “the teams were in fierce contention for first place”

rivalry, contention

group action – action taken by a group of people

contest – a struggle between rivals

cooperation – joint operation or action; “their cooperation with us was essential for the success of our mission”

  4. competition – the contestant you hope to defeat; “he had respect for his rivals”; “he wanted to know what the competition was doing”

challenger, competitor, contender, rival

contestant – a person who participates in competitions

champ, champion, title-holder – someone who has won first place in a competition

comer – someone with a promising future

finalist – a contestant who reaches the final stages of a competition

foe, enemy – a personal enemy; “they had been political foes for years”

favourite, front-runner, favorite – a competitor thought likely to win

world-beater, king, queen – a competitor who holds a preeminent position

runner-up, second best – the competitor who finishes second

scratch – a competitor who has withdrawn from competition

semifinalist – one of four competitors remaining in a tournament by elimination

street fighter – a contestant who is very aggressive and willing to use underhand methods

tier – any one of two or more competitors who tie one another

tilter – someone who engages in a tilt or joust

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.



1. rivalry, opposition, struggle, contest, contention, strife, one-upmanship (informal) There’s been some fierce competition for the title.

2. opposition, field, rivals, challengers In this business you have to stay one step ahead of the competition.

3. contest, event, championship, tournament, quiz, head-to-head He will be banned from international competitions for four years.

“A horse never runs so fast as when he has other horses to catch up and outpace” [Ovid The Art of Love]

Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002



Noun 1. customer – someone who pays for goods or services


consumer – a person who uses goods or services

buyer, emptor, purchaser, vendee – a person who buys

guest – a customer of a hotel or restaurant etc.

frequenter, patron – a regular customer

policyholder – a person who holds an insurance policy; usually, the client in whose name an insurance policy is written

shopper – someone who visits stores in search of articles to buy

disburser, expender, spender – someone who spends money to purchase goods or services

reader, subscriber – someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication

taker – one who accepts an offer

warrantee – a customer to whom a warrant or guarantee is given

whoremaster, whoremonger, john, trick – a prostitute’s customer

business relation – a relation between different business enterprises

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


Department stores

Noun 1. department store – a large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise; commonly part of a retail chain


mercantile establishment, outlet, retail store, sales outlet – a place of business for retailing goods

retail chain – a chain of retail stores

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.




1. the state, quality, or condition of being an entrepreneur, an organizer or promoter of business ventures.
2. the duration of a person’s function as an entrepreneur.